مطالعه فلوریستیک علف‌های هرز مزارع زعفران (Crocus sativus L. ) بخش چشمه‌ساران شهرستان آزادشهر

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد رشته شناسایی و مبارزه با علف‌های ‌هرز گروه تولیدات گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس

2 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس

3 استان گلستان، شهرستان گنبدکاووس، دانشگاه گنبدکاووس، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، گروه تولیدات گیاهی. صندوق پستی 163.

10.22048/jsat.2019.183023.1347

چکیده

تحقیقی به‌منظور مطالعه فلوریستیک علف‌های هرز مزارع زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) واقع در بخش چشمه‌ساران شهرستان آزادشهر جهت گزارش پراکنش و تنوع گونه‌ای جمعیت علف‌های ‌هرز انجام شد. برای این منظور، مزارع زعفران با سطح زیر کشت بالغ بر 3 هکتار در سه منطقه شامل روستاهای نرآب، وامنان و تیل‌آباد مورد شناسایی قرار گرفت. شناسایی و نمونه‌برداری از علف‌های‌ هرز در مرحله رشد رویشی زعفران (بنه دختری) در سال 1396 انجام شد. تعداد 45 کوآدرات برای هر مزرعه مورد برررسی قرار گرفت و سپس تعداد و نوع گونه علف‌هرز در هر کوآدرات به‌تفکیک شمارش گردید. گونه‌های هرز بر اساس نام فارسی، نام علمی، جنس، تیره، شکل برگ، مسیر فتوسنتزی، شکل رویشی و چرخه زندگی طبقه‌بندی شدند. نتایج ترکیب گونه‌ای علف‌های هرز در مزارع زعفران مناطق سه گانه نشان داد که منطقه نرآب با 54 گونه از بیشترین تعداد برخوردار بود. علف‌هرز سیزاب ایرانی و گندمک در نرآب و سیزاب ایرانی در وامنان از علف‌های هرز غالب در این مناطق بوده که از بیشترین تراکم و فراوانی نسبی برخوردار بودند. در مقابل علف‌هرز جو موشی در منطقه تیل‌آباد از لحاظ تراکم و فراوانی بیشترین میزان را دارا بود. این امر می‌تواند به‌دلیل تفاوت در مختصات جغرافیایی، شرایط آب و هوایی محل‌‌های نمونه‌برداری، توان رقابتی علف‌های هرز و روش‌های مدیریتی کنترل آن‌ها در مزارع زعفران باشد. نتایج تنوع گونه‌ای علف‌های هرز نشان داد که مناطق تیل‌آباد و نرآب به‌ترتیب از بیشترین و کمترین شاخص غالبیت به‌میزان 13/0 و 08/0 برخوردار بودند. در مقابل، بیشترین غنای منهینگ، مارگالف و یکنواختی علف‌های هرز به منطقه نرآب به‌ترتیب معادل 67/0، 55/2 و 97/0 اختصاص داشت. هم‌چنین مناطق نرآب و وامنان به‌ترتیب از بیشترین مقدار عددی شاخص سیمپسون (92/0) و شانون- وینر (64/2) برخوردار بودند. در مجموع نتایج نشان داد که مزارع زعفران در دو منطقه نرآب و وامنان از لحاظ حضور تعداد گونه‌ای و شاخص‌های جمعیتی علف‌های هرز از بیشترین تشابه برخوردار بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Floristic study of weeds of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) fields in Cheshmesaran district in Azadshar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kambiz Khormali 1
  • Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari 2
  • Mehdi Zaraie 2
  • Zeinab Avarseji 3
  • Leila Ahangar 3
1 MSc. in Identification and Weeds Control, Plant Production Department, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University.
2 Assistant Professor, Department Plant Production, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University
3 Assistant Professor, Department Plant Production, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University
چکیده [English]

A research was conducted to study floristic of weeds of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) fields located in Cheshmesaran district in Azadshar to report distribution and species diversity of weeds population. For this purpose, saffron fields under cultivation over 3 hectares was identified in three regions, including Narab, Vamenan and Tillabad village. Identification and sampling of weeds was done in vegetative growth stage of saffron (daughter corms) in 2017. 45 quadrates were used for each farm and then number and type of weed species each quadrat was counted separately. Weeds species based on Persian name, scientific name, genus, family, leaf shape, photosynthetic pathway, growth habit and life cycle were classified. Results of species composition of weeds in saffron fields of triple regions showed that Narab region with 54 species had the largest number of species. Veronica persica Poir weed and Stellaria midia in Narab and Veronica persica Poir in Vamenan were the dominant weed in these regions which had the highest relative density and frequency. In return, Hordeum murinum in the Tillabad region had the greatest density and frequency. This could be due to the differences in geographical coordinates, climatic conditions of sampling locations, competitive ability of weeds and management methods to control them in saffron fields. The results of species diversity of weeds showed that Narab and Tilabad included highest and lowest dominance index, which were about 0.13 and 0.08, respectively. In return, the highest Menhinick richness, Margalev and uniformiy of weeds were recorded in the Narab region about 0.67, 2.55 and 0.97, respectively. Narab and Vamenan regions also had maximum numerical value of Simpson (0.92) and Shannon- Wiener indices (2.64). Overall, the results showed that saffron fields of both regions of Narab and Vamenan were most similar in term of weed species number and population indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Daughter corm
  • Species composition
  • Shannon and Simpson indices
  • Uniformity
  • Veronica persica Poir
Abdullaev, F. 2006. Biological properties and medicinal use of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). 2th International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology Technology. Mashhad, Iran, 28-30 October 2006, pp. 339-345.

Ardakani, M.R., Rezvani, M., and Zaefarian, F. 2007. Experimental Plant Ecology. University of Tehran Press, 172 p.

Barnes, B.V. 1998. Forest Ecology, John Wiley and Sons, INC, 773 p.

Begna, S.H., Hamilton, R.I., Dwyer, L.M., Stewart, D.W., Cloutier, D., Assemat, L., Foroutan Pour, K., and Smith, D.L. 2001. Weed biomass production response to plant spacing and corn (Zea mays) hybrids differing in canopy architecture. Weed Technology 15 (4): 647-653.

Behnia, M.R. 2005. Problems and difficulties of saffron in Iran. 2nd National Exhibition of Saffron. 2 November 2005. Ghayen.

Dianat, M., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Alizadeh, H.M.., and Zand, E. 2005. Evaluation of important traits in competitive ability of wheat cultivars (Teriticum aestivum) against rye (Secale cereale). Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 71:58-66. (In Persian with English Summary).

Efthimiadou, Α., Froud-Williams, R., Eleftherochorinos, I., Karkanis, A., and Bilalis, D. 2012. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on weed management in sweet maize. International Journal of Plant Production 6 (3): 291-308.

Goodman, D. 1978. The theory of diversity. Stability relationships in ecology. The Quarterly Review of Biology 50 (3): 237-266.

Grime J.P., Hodgson J.G., and Hunt R. 1988. Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman Ltd, London, UK.

Guerrero-Campo, J., Alberto, F., Hodgson, J., Garcia-Ruiz, J.M., and Montserrat- Marti, G.  1999. Plant community patterns in a gypsum area of NE Spain. I. Interactions with topographic factors and soil erosion. Journal of Arid Environments 41 (4): 401–410.

Hassan Nezhad, S., Alizadeh, H.M., Mozaffarian, V., Chaychi, M., and Minbashi, M.M. 2009. Study of weeds density and dominance of barley field of eastern Azerbaijan. Iranian Journal of Weed Science 69- 90. (In Persian with English Summary).

Hassan Nezhad, S., and Porheidar Ghafarbi, S. 2014. Weed flora survey in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) fields of Shabestar (northwest of Iran). Agronomy and Soil Science 60 (7): 971- 991.

He, M.Z., Zheng, J.G. Li. X.R., and Qian, Y.L. 2007. Environmental factors affecting vegetation composition in the Alxa Plateau, China. Journal of Arid Environments 69 (3): 473-489.

Heidar Nezhad Moghaddam, E. 2011. Evaluation of weed dynamic in saffron fields of Ghaenat county (South Khorasan Province) using geographic information system. MSc. thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary).

Izsak, I., and Papp, L. 2000. A link between ecological diversity indices and measures of biodiversity. Ecological Modeling 130 (1-3): 151-156.

Jahani Kondori, M., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Rezvani Moghaddam, P. 2012. Evaluation of weed species diversity in wheat fields of the east of Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 10 (3): 468-475. (In Persian with English Summary).

Jannati Ataie, S., Pirdashti, I., Kazemi, H., and Yones Abadi, M. 2017. Evaluation of health of canola ecological farming systems using GIS system. Journal of Plant Production 24 (4): 1-12. (In Persian with English Summary).

Jiang, Y., Kang, M., Zhu, Y., and Ku, G. 2007. Plant biodiversity patterns on Helan Mountain, China. Acta Oecologica 32 (2): 125-133.

Kafi, M., Rashed Mohassel, M.H., Koocheki, A., and Mollafilabi, A. 2002. Saffron: Production and Processing. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press, 244 p. (In Persian).

Kelley, W.R. 1953. Study of Seed Identification and Seed Germination of Potentilla spp. and Veronica spp. Memoir 317, Cornell University Agricultural. Experiment Station, New, York, USA.

Khorramdel, S., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Mollafilabi, A., and Valizadeh, S. 2017. Investigation of weed species diversity and community structure in saffron fields of Khorasan. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 5 (3): 211-229. (In Persian with English Summary).

Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M.M., Tabrizi, L., Azizi, G., and Jahan, M. 2006b. Assessing species and functional diversity and community structure for weeds in wheat and sugar beet in Iran. Iranian Field Crops Research 4 (2): 105-129. (In Persian with English Summary).

Koocheki, A., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Khiabani, H. 1994. Weed Ecology (Translation). Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press. (In Persian).

Kropff, M.J., and Spitters, C.J.T. 1992. An eco- physiological model for interspecific competition, applied to the influence of Chenopodium album L. on sugar beet. I. Model description and parameterization. Weed Research 32 (6): 437-450.

Lemerle, D., Verbeek, B., Cousens, R.D., and Coombes, N. 1996. The potential for selecting wheat varieties strongly competitive against weeds. Weed Research Journal 36 (6): 505-513.

Lindquist, J.L., and Mortensen, D.A. 1998. Tolerance and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti L.) suppressive ability of two old and two modern corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Journal of Weed Science 46 (5): 569- 574.

Ma, M. 2005. Species richness evenness: independent relationship and different responses to edaphic factors. Oikos 111 (1): 192-198.

Magurran, A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Croom Helm, London, 179 p.

Maranon, T., Ajbilou, R., Ojeda, F., and Arroya, J. 1999. Biodiversity of woody species in oak woodland of southern Spain and northern Morocco. Forest Ecology and Management 115 (2-3): 147-156.

Matinzadeh, H., Alimoradi, L., and Bahari Kashani, R. 2011. Evaluation of species, functional and structural weed of apple orchads of Fariman. Weed Ecology 2 (1): 19-31. (In Persian with English Summary).

Minbashi, M., Baghestani, M.A., Rahimian, H., and Aleefard, M. 2008. Weed mapping for irrigated wheat fields of Tehran province using geographic information system (GIS). Iranian Journal of Weed Science 4 (1): 97-118. (In Persian with English Summary).

Mohammaddoust, H.R., Baghestani, M.A., and Mikhailovic, A. 2006. The impact of agronomic practices on weed community in winter rye. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 12 (4): 281-291.

Nantel. P., and Gagnon, D. 1999. Variability in the dynamics of Northern Peripheral versus Southern population of two colonial plant species of Helianthus divericatus and Rhus aromatic. Forest Ecology and Management 87 (5): 748-760.

Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Beheshti, A.R. 2009. Agroecology (4th edition). Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publication, Mashhad, Iran, 460 p. (In Persian).

Nehvi, F.A., Wani, S.A., Dar, S.A., Makhdoomi, M.I., Allie, B.A., and Mir, Z.A. 2008. New emerging trends on production technology of saffron. Proceeding of the 2nd International Symposium Saffron Biology and Technology, 5- 8 July 2008.

Ni, H., Moody, K., Robles, R.P., Paller, E.C., and Lales, J.S. 2000. Oryza sativa plant traits conferring competitive ability against weeds. Weed Science Journal 48 (2): 200- 204.

Poggio, S.L., Satorre, E.L., and de la Fuente, E.B. 2004. Structure of weed community's occurring in pea and wheat crops in the Rolling Pampa (Argentina). Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 103 (1): 225- 235.

Pourbabaei , H., Djvanshir, K., and  Zobiery, M.1999. Diversity of woody species of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) sites in the Guilan Forests. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources. 52 (1): 35-46. (In Persian with English Summary).

Rashed Mohassel, M.H. 1992. Weed flora of saffron fields in South Khorasan. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 6: 118-135. (In Persian with English Summary).

Ravanbakhsh, M., Ejtehadi, H., Pourbabaei, H., and Ghoreshi-Al-Hoseini, J. 2007. Investigation on plant species diversity of Gisoum Talesh Reserve forest, Gilan Province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Biology 20 (3): 218- 229. (In Persian with English Summary).

Rong, L.X. 2001. Study on shrub community diversity of Ordos plateau, Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Journal of Arid Environments 47 (3): 271-279.

Schmitt, C.B., Denich, M., Demissew, S., Ib Friis, I., and Boehmer, H.J. 2010. Floristic diversity in fragmented Afromontane rainforests, Altitudinal variation and conservation importance. Journal of International Association for Vegetation Science 13 (3): 291-304.

Schuster, B., and Diekmann, M. 2005. Species richness and environmental correlates in deciduous forests of Northwest Germany. Forest Ecology and Management 206 (1-3): 197-205.

Smale, E., Meng, J.P., Brennan, N., and Hu, R. 2003. Determinants of spatial diversity in modern wheat: example from Australia and China. Agriculture Economics 28 (1): 13-26.

Soufizadeh, S., Zand, E., Baghestani, M.A., Kashani, F.B., and Nezamabadi, N. 2008. Integrated weed management in saffron (Crucos sativus). Proceeding of the 2nd International Symposium Saffron Biology and Technology, 5- 8 July 2008.

Storky, J. 2006. A functional group approach to the management of UK arable weeds to support biological diversity. Weed Research Journal 46 (6): 513-522.

Thomas, A.G., and Dale, M.R.T. 1985. Weed survey system used in Saskatchewan for cereal and oil seed crops. Weed Science Journal 33 (1): 34-43.

Williams, A.C.J., and West, C.J. 2000. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to management. Austral Ecology 25 (5): 425-444.

Zare Chabouki, M.A., Jafari, M., and Azanivand, H. 2008. Relationship between vegetation diversity and environmental factors in Poshtkouh rangelands of Yazd province. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 21 (1): 192- 199. (In Persian with English Summary).