ارزیابی سازگاری اکوتیپ‌های مختلف زعفران زراعی با شرایط آب و هوایی شهرستان مراغه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد تولیدات گیاهی دانشگاه مراغه

2 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه لرستان

3 استادیار گروه زراعت واصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه مراغه

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی سازگاری برخی اکوتیپ‌های زعفران زراعی (sativusCrocus) نسبت به شرایط اقلیمی شهرستان مراغه، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و طی دو سال متوالی (1392-1393) اجرا شد. اکوتیپ‌های موردمطالعه شامل بردسکن، سبزوار، تربت‌حیدریه، کاشمر، تایباد، آبرود، دوغ‌آباد، اسفیوخ، مرند 1، مرند 2، بناب 1 و بناب 2 بودند. صفات مورد ارزیابی شامل وزن تر کلاله، وزن خشک کلاله، طول خامه، طول کلاله، درصد سبز شدن، سرعت سبز شدن، ارتفاع گل، درصد گلدهی، سرعت گلدهی، وزن تر و خشک گل و عملکرد خشک کلاله در واحد سطح بود. نتایج نشان داد تمامی اکوتیپ‌ها از درصد سبز شدن و استقرار خوبی در سال اول برخوردار بودند، ولی با شروع یخبندان، اکوتیپ‌های آبرود، اسفیوخ و تایباد سازگاری کمتری به دماهای پایین نشان دادند. بین اکوتیپ‌ها از لحاظ صفات تعداد گل در واحد سطح، درصدگلدهی، درصد سبز شدن و میانگین وزن تر گل در سطح احتمال 05/0 اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود داشت. همچنین اختلاف آماری معنی‌داری در سطح احتمال 01/0 برای سرعت گلدهی و سبز شدن در بین اکوتیپ‌های موردبررسی مشاهده شد. بالاترین درصد سبز شدن در سال دوم مربوط به اکوتیپ مرند 2 بود، ولی اکوتیپ سبزوار بالاترین سرعت گلدهی و بیشترین درصد گلدهی را به خود اختصاص داد. با وجود پایین بودن عملکرد اکوتیپ‌های مرند 1 و سبزوار در سال استقرار، این دو اکوتیپ در سال دوم بیشترین عملکرد را نشان دادند، به‌طوری‌که مقدار تولید سال دوم اکوتیپ سبزوار 5/1 کیلوگرم در هکتار و اکوتیپ مرند 1 4/1 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. در مجموع، نتایج نشان داد که اکوتیپ‌های مرند جهت کاشت در شهرستان مراغه مناسب بوده و استفاده از بنه‌های خارج از استان توصیه نمی‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Adaptability of Different Cultivated Ecotypes of Saffron Under Maragheh Climatic Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Ensaf 1
  • Bahman Zahedi 2
  • Ali Asghar Aliloo 3
1 Master science in plant production, Maragheh University.
2 Professor assistant, department of plant production, Lorestan University.
3 Professor assistant, department of agronomy and plant breeding, Maragheh University
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the adaptability of saffron ecotypes under Maragheh climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted based on a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with three replications during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. The ecotypes used were Bardaskan, Abrud, Sabzevar, Bonab1, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Bonab2, Marand1, Marand2, Kashmar, Taybad, Esfiukh and Mahvelat. The following traits were evaluated: fresh weight of stigma, dry weight of stigma, length of stigma, emergence percentage, emergence rate, flowering percentage, flowering rate, dry and fresh weight of flowers and dry yield of stigma in the area. The results showed that the ecotypes established very well in the first year of the experiment, but frosty days of the winter severely damaged Abrud, Taybad and Esfiukh ecotypes. There were significant differences among the ecotypes for the traits: the number of flowers, emergence, flowering percent and fresh weight of saffron. Also, a significant difference was recorded among the studied ecotypes for flowering and emergence rate. The highest emergence percentage was observed in Marand 2, while Sabzevar had the highest rate of flowering and flowering percentage. Despite the low yields for Marand1 and Sabzevar in the first year of the experiment, these ecotypes with 1.5 and 1.4 kg per hectare produced the high stigma yields, respectively in the second year. In conclusion, the results showed that the ecotypes of Marand are suitable for cultivate in the Maragheh climate conditions and the use of exotic corms is not recommended. Adaptability, Corm, Flowering percentage, Stigma yield

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adaptability
  • Corm
  • Flowering percentage
  • Stigma yield

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