بررسی اثر فلزات سنگین مختلف بر صفات فیزیولوژیک گیاه زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه ملایر

2 استاد گروه زیست شناسی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

3 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی گیاهی، دانشگاه ملایر

چکیده

افزایش غلظت فلزات سنگین نظیر سرب، مس، نیکل و سایر فلزات سنگین در آب، خاک و هوا می‌تواند به دلیل تأثیر منفی بر کل بوم نظام باعث اثرات زیانباری برای سلامت همه موجودات زنده گردد. مهم‌ترین منبع این آلودگی‌ها در بیشتر قسمت‌های دنیا معادن، پساب‌های صنعتی، کودهای شیمیایی و آفت‌کش‌ها می‌باشند. به‌منظور بررسی اثر فلزات سنگین مختلف بر روی تعدادی از ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک زعفران همچون میزان رنگ‌دانه‌های فتوسنتزی، پرولین، کروسین و کربوهیدرات‌های محلول و نامحلول آزمایشی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 3 تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کاربرد فلزات سنگین به‌صورت نمک‌های نیترات نقره، سولفات منگنز، نیترات نیکل، نیترات روی، کربنات مس، نیترات سرب و شاهد بودند. قبل از کاشت هر یک از فلزات موردنظر با غلظت 500 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده اثر تیمارهای آزمایشی بر میزان کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل و همچنین نسبت کلروفیل a به b معنی‌دار بود ولی اثر این تیمارها بر میزان کاروتنوئیدهای برگ زعفران معنی‌دار نبود. میزان پرولین و کربوهیدرات‌های محلول برگ به‌صورت معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر تیمارهای آزمایش قرار گرفت ولی اثر تیمارها بر میزان کربوهیدرات‌های احیاکننده معنی‌دار نبود. تیمارهای آزمایشی همچنین تأثیر معنی‌داری بر میزان کروسین موجود در کلاله زعفران داشتند و در همه تیمارها به‌غیراز نیترات نیکل میزان کروسین کلاله از تیمار شاهد بیشتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Heavy Metals on Physiological Traits of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Rostami 1
  • Roya Karamian 2
  • Zahra Joulaei 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Malayer, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Biology, Bu Ali Sina University, Iran
3 Former MSc. Student of Plant Physiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Malayer, Iran
چکیده [English]

Increasing the concentration of different heavy metals, such as lead, copper, nickel and other heavy metals in air, soil and water can pose negative effects on the entire ecosystem and cause harmful health consequences for all forms of life. The major sources of pollution in many parts of world are overburdens of mine, industrial effluents, fertilizers and pesticides. In order to study the effects of different heavy metals on some of the physiological attributes of saffron such as photosynthetic pigments, Prolin and carbohydrates of leaf and the amount of crocin in the saffron stigmas, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications and seven treatments. The experimental treatments were control and six different heavy metals (i.e. nickel nitrate, silver nitrate, zinc nitrate, copper carbonate, lead nitrate and manganese sulfate). Before sowing the corms, all of the heavy metals were added to the soil based on the concentration of 500 mg.kg-1 soil. The effects of experimental treatments on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b were significant, but there was no significant effect on leaf carotenoids. Proline and soluble carbohydrates were significantly affected by the treatments. However, the effects of these treatments on reducing carbohydrates were not significant. Heavy metals also had significant effects on crocin content of the saffron stigmas. By using all of the heavy metals except for nickel nitrate, the amount of crocin increased.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbohydrates
  • Environmental stress
  • Proline
  • Secondary metabolites

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