تحلیل پیامدهای تغییر کاربری اراضی کشاورزی در سکونتگاه‌های روستایی با تأکید برکشت زعفران (نمونه‌ی موردی: دهستان میانجام شهرستان تربت‌جام)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دکتر علی شریعتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دکتر علی شریعتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دکتر علی شریعتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

10.22048/jsat.2020.209074.1364

چکیده

تغییر کاربری اراضی کشاورزی در روستا که عمدتاً در اثر فعالیت‌های انسانی روی می‌دهد، علاوه بر تغییرات مستقیم زیست محیطی، پیامدهای اجتماعی و اقتصادی غیرمستقیمی بر زندگی بشر گذاشته است. ازاین‌رو پژوهش حاضر باهدف بررسی آثار و پیامدهای کشت زعفران در سال‌های اخیر بر زندگی روستاییان در دهستان میان جام از شهرستان تربت‌جام، انجام‌شده است. روش تحقیق در پژوهش حاضر توصیفی- تحلیلی و نوع آن ازنظر هدف، بنیادی است. برای جمع‌آوری اطلاعات از روش‌های‌ اسنادی و میدانی (1397) استفاده‌شده است. جامعه نمونه 10 روستای دهستان میانجام می‌باشد که بیشترین سطح زیر کشت زعفران را دارند. از مجموع 3444 خانوار در نقاط روستایی نمونه، با فرمول کوکران و خطای (0.08)، حجم نمونه 115 خانوار به‌دست‌آمده است که این افراد با روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی انتخاب شدند. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان می‌دهد، ازنظر روستاییان تأثیر تغییر الگوی کشت در شاخص‌های اجتماعی-فرهنگی با میانگین 84/3 کمترین و در شاخص‌های کالبدی با میانگین 4 بیشترین تأثیر داشته است. با توجه به نتایج آزمون T تک نمونه‌ای نیز اثرات کشت زعفران در شاخص اقتصادی با مقدار 56/75، بیشتر از سایر شاخص‌ها است. در توزیع فضایی میانگین اثرات کشت زعفران در سطح روستاها، روستای امغان با رقم 02/4 بیشترین و روستاهای باغسنگان علیا و حاجی‌آباد با رقم 86/3 کمترین آماره‌ها را نشان می‌دهد. نتایج تکنیک آراس برای رتبه‌بندی دقیق روستاهای نمونه نیز این امر را تائید کرد. در ادامه برای بررسی معناداری ارتباط بین متغیرهای تحقیق و ضریب اثرگذاری شاخص‌ها از نرم‌افزارSmart PLS استفاده شد، که ضریب مسیر مقدار t مشخص کرد رابطه بین متغیرهای زیست‌محیطی، کالبدی و اقتصادی با اثرات کلی کشت زعفران در روستاهای نمونه معنادار و مستقیم است؛ که طبق ضرایب استاندارد، 36 درصد از اثرات کشت زعفران به‌طور مستقیم توسط شاخص اقتصادی پیش‌بینی می‌شود. با توجه به یافته‌های تحقیق می‌توان آموزش کشاورزان در رابطه با اشاعه روش‌های استفاده از شیوه‌های بومی و نوین آبیاری در کشت محصول زعفران، آشنا نمودن کشاورزان به اصول علمی کاشت و بالابردن کیفیت زعفران، اصول دقیق برداشت را پیشنهاد نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Consequences of Agricultural Land Use Change in Rural Settelments with an Emphasis on the Propagation of Saffron (Case study: Miyanjam Dehestan of Torbatjam County)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliakbar Anabestani 1
  • Mahdi Javanshiri 2
  • Khadijeh Yazdani 3
1 Professor in Department of Geography, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Ph.D Candidate in Geography and Rural Planning, Department of Geography, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
3 MSc. in Geography and Rural Planning, Department of Geography, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Changing the use of agricultural land in the village, which is mainly due to human activities, has, in addition to indirect environmental changes, has social, economic, and ... direct consequences on human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effects and consequences of cultivation of saffron in recent years on the lives of villagers in the village miyanjam of the Tarbatjam county. The research method in this research is descriptive-analytic and its type is fundamental in terms of purpose. Documentary and observational methods have been used to collect information. The sample population is 10 villages in the rural district of miyanjam that have the highest level of cultivation of saffron. From 3444 families in sample rural areas with Cochran formula and error (0.08%), the sample size of 115 households were selected by random sampling method. The results of this study show that, in terms of villagers, the effect of changing the pattern of cultivation in socio-cultural indicators was 3.84 in the least and in the physical indices with the mean of 4 had the most effect. According to the results of single sample T test, the effects of saffron cultivation on the economic index with the value of 56.65 are more than other indicators. In the spatial distribution, the mean of the effects of saffron cultivation on the level of villages is Emogan village with the highest number of 4.2 and the villages of Bashzandan Olya and Hajiabad with the lowest level of 86.3. The results of ARAS's technique for accurate ranking of sample villages confirmed this. In order to investigate the significance of the relationship between the variables of the research, the coefficient of effectiveness of the indices was determined using Smart PLS software. The path coefficient of t indicated that the relationship between environmental, physical and economic variables with the general effects of saffron cultivation in the sampled villages was meaningful and direct; according to the coefficients Standard, 36% of the effects of saffron cultivation are predicted directly by the economic index.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land Use Change
  • Crop pattern change
  • Saffron
  • villages of district Myanjam
  • Smart PLS
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