بررسی امکان کاربرد علف‌کش‌ها همراه با ادجونت‌ها در کنترل علف‌های هرز پهن‌برگ زعفران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 داﻧﺸﺠﻮی دﮐﺘﺮی ﻋﻠﻮم ﻋﻠﻔﻬﺎی ﻫﺮز داﻧﺸﮑﺪه ﮐﺸﺎورزی داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﻓﺮدوﺳﯽ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد ﮔﺮوه اگروتکنولوژی داﻧﺸﮑﺪه ﮐﺸﺎورزی داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﻓﺮدوﺳﯽ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ

4 داﻧﺸﯿﺎر ﮔﺮوه زراﻋﺖ و اﺻﻼح ﻧﺒﺎت داﻧﺸﮑﺪه ﮐﺸﺎورزی داﻧﺸﮕﺎه شاهرود

10.22048/jsat.2020.211626.1372

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی امکان مصرف دزهای مختلف برخی علف‌کش‌ها در اختلاط با مواد افزودنی برای کنترل علف‌های هرز پهن‌برگ زعفران، آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای در ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻃﺮح آﻣﺎری بلوک‌ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﯽ در ﺳﻪ ﺗﮑﺮار اﺟﺮا ﺷﺪ. ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ موردبررسی در اﯾﻦ آزﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ کاربرد علف‌کش‌های اگزادیازون، اکسی فلورفن، ریم سولفورون و دای کامبا + تریتوسولفورون به ترتیب در مقادیر توصیه‌شده 500، 700، 10 و 150 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار بدون ماده افزودنی و در مقادیر کاهش ‌یافته 375، 480، 5/7 و 112 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار به‌تنهایی و در اختلاط با مواد افزودنی سیتوگیت (2/0درصد حجمی) و هیومیکس (25/0 درصد حجمی ) به همراه دو تیمار شاهد بدون کنترل و وجین دستی بودند. علف‌های هرز هفت‌بند و شاهی وحشی با تراکم نسبی 26 و 5/20 درصد به ترتیب بیشترین تراکم را در میان علف‌های هرز به خود اختصاص دادند. ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ ﻧﺸﺎن داد وﺟﯿﻦ ﮐﺮدن به‌طور قابل‌ملاحظه‌ای عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران را اﻓﺰاﯾﺶ داد. کاهش دز علف­کش­های اکسی فلورفن و اگزادیازون باعث کاهش خسارت این علف‌کش­ها به زعفران شد ولی افزودن سیتوگیت به این علف­کش­ها خسارت گیاه‌سوزی در زعفران را افزایش داد. افزودن هیومیکس به این علف­کش­ها تأثیری در افزایش یا کاهش گیاه‌سوزی نداشت. کاهش دز علف‌کش­های دای کامبا + تریتوسولفورون و ریم سولفورون اگرچه باعث کاهش گیاه‌سوزی و افزایش عملکرد زعفران شد ولی این علف‌کش‌ها حتی در دز کاهش‌یافته نیز پتانسیل خسارت به مزارع زعفران را دارند. افزودن ماده افزودنی سیتوگیت به این علف­کش­ها می‌تواند کارایی‌ها این علف‌کش‌ها در کنترل علف‌های ﻫﺮز را افزایش دهد ولی با توجه به پتانسیل خسارت این علف‌کش‌ها به زعفران کاربرد این علف­کش­ها در مزارع زعفران حتی در دزهای کاهش‌یافته نیز توصیه نمی‌شود، تیمارهای کاربرد علف‌کش‏ اکسی فلورفن در مقادیر 480 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار به‌تنهایی و در اختلاط با هیومیکس، بهترین تیمارها جهت استفاده در زعفران بود درحالی‌که امکان مصرف علف‌کش اگزادیازون در مقدار 375 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار برای کنترل علف‌های هرز پهن‌برگ زعفران نیز وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the possibility of herbicides use with adjuvants to control broadleaf weeds in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Hosseini- Evari 1
  • Ebrahim Izadi Darbandi 2
  • Mohammad Kafi 3
  • Hassan Makarian 4
1 Ph.D Student of weed science, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Department of Agrotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University, Shahrood, Iran
چکیده [English]

A field study with 3 replications based on RCBD was conducted in order to improve the efficacy of some herbicides using adjuvants in the control of broadleaf weeds of saffron. Oxadiazone, oxyfluorfen, rimsulfuron and dicamba+ tritosulfuron herbicides at recommended rates of 500, 700, 10 and 150 a.i. ha-1, respectively without adjuvants and in reduced rates 375, 480, 8.75 and 112, respectively were used when they were tank-mixed with and without citogate (0.2% v.v-1) and humix 99 (0.25% v.v-1) as well as a control plot with no herbicide application and hand weeding. Weed species of Polygonum aviculare and Cardaria draba with relative density of 26% and 20.5%, respectively were the dominant weeds in the experimental field. The results showed that hand weeding significantly increased the yield of saffron flower and corm. Application of oxyflurfen and oxadiazone in reduced rates decreased saffron damage while addition of citogate to these herbicides increased the phytotoxicity damage in saffron. Addition of humix to these herbicides had no effect on phytotoxicity damage. Although application of rimsulfuron and dicamba+ tritosulfuron in reduced rates reduced phytotoxicity damage and increased yield of saffron, these herbicides have the potential to damage saffron even at reduced rates. Adding citogate to these herbicides can increase the efficacy of these herbicides in weeds control but considering the potential of these herbicides in damage to saffron, application of these herbicides in saffron fields is not recommended even at reduced doses. Application of oxyflurfen at 480 a.i. ha-1 without adjuvant and tank-mixed with humix were best treatments for use in saffron fields. However, it is also possible to use oxadiazone at 375 a.i. ha-1 to control saffron broadleaf weeds.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chemical control
  • Phytotoxicity
  • Reduced doses
  • Saffron Yield
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