ارزیابی غلظت و روند انتقال برخی از فلزات کمیاب در گیاه و مزرعه زعفران با استفاده از آنالیز فعال‌سازی نوترون

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه مهندسی صنایع و مکانیک، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه، خراسان رضوی، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2020.210456.1368

چکیده

در این پژوهش غلظت وانادیوم، کروم، منگنز، کبالت، روی و آرسنیک در خاک و گیاه زعفران در دو شهرستان تربت حیدریه و زاوه به عنوان دو قطب تولید زعفران در جهان، با استفاده از روش فعال‌سازی نوترونی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. غلظت کروم و کبالت در خاک از سطح مجاز سازمان بهداشت جهانی بسیار بالاتر و میزان غلظت عناصر وانادیوم، منگنز، روی و آرسنیک از سطح مجاز این سازمان کمتر، اندازه‌گیری شد. هیچ کمبود عناصر ضروری برای رشد گیاه زعفران در خاک مشاهده نشد. برای ارزیابی نتایج آنالیز فعال‌سازی نوترونی از دو آزمون آماری استفاده شد. نتایج آزمون تی جفت شده نشان داد که غلظت عناصر وانادیوم، منگنز، کروم و کبالت در عمق‌های مختلف خاک هم‌ارز بوده که بر توزیع یکنواخت این عناصر در خاک اشاره دارد. فقط غلظت فلز روی در بنه و خاک اطراف آن از نظر آماری هم‌ارز بود، که می‌تواند یکی از نشانه‌های روند حرکتی مناسب روی از خاک به گیاه زعفران باشد. هم‌چنین این آزمون نشان داد که توزیع عناصر جذب شده در قسمت‌های هوایی گیاه زعفران یکنواخت بود. محاسبه ضریب همبستگی نیز نشان داد که افزایش غلظت روی در خاک باعث کاهش جذب کبالت و منگنز توسط گیاه زعفران می‌شود. براساس شاخص‌های آلودگی و زمین‌انباشت خاک تمامی مزارع زعفران شهرستان‌های تربت حیدریه و زاوه، بسیار زیاد به کروم آلوده­اند. در مناطق مجاور هم در دو شهرستان (جنوب تربت­حیدریه و غرب زاوه) سطح آلودگی خاک مزارع زعفران به آرسنیک، متوسط و در منطقه مرکزی زاوه بسیار زیاد ارزیابی شد. هم‌چنین براساس شاخص آلودگی، به‌جز زعفران شرق زاوه و جنوب تربت­حیدریه که به کروم آلوده بودند، محصول زعفران در تمام مزارع غیرآلوده تخمین زده شد. دو شاخص بار و درجه آلودگی، خاک مزارع زعفران را در مجموع به شدت آلوده ارزیابی کردند. هم‌چنین براساس این دو آزمون به‌جز در منطقه شهری شهرستان تربت­حیدریه که محصول زعفران در سطح متوسط آلودگی ارزیابی شد، محصول زعفران در شهرستان‌های تربت حیدریه و زاوه به صورت کلی غیرآلوده تخمین زده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of levels of some trace metals in Crocus sativus L. and their transfer trend from soil to saffron by using neutron activation analysis

نویسنده [English]

  • Ehsan Taghizadeh Tousi
Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Researcher, Saffron Institute, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Khorasan Razavi, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this research, concentrations of vanadium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, and arsenic were measured in saffron and saffron farm soil in two counties of Torbat Heydariyeh and Zaveh as two main centers of saffron production in the world using the neutron activation analysis method. The soil chromium and cobalt concentrations of all farms were found to be much higher than the WHO level and the values of vanadium, manganese, zinc, and arsenic were lower than the admissible level. The deficiency of essential elements for plant growth in the soil was not found. Two statistical analyses were used to evaluate the results of neutron activation analysis. The results of the paired t-test showed that the concentrations of vanadium, manganese, chromium, and cobalt were similar in different soil depths, which indicated distribution of these elements in the soil to be uniform. Also, only the zinc concentrations in the corm and its surrounding soil were statistically significant, which could indicate a strong movement of this element from soil to saffron. This test also showed that the distribution of the elements was uniform in the shoots. The correlation coefficients show that the uptake of cobalt and manganese by the saffron may decrease by increasing concentration of zinc in the soil. In addition, based on the contamination index and geo-accumulation, all soils in Torbat Heydarieh and Zaveh are extremely contaminated by chromium. In the adjacent areas in these two counties (south of Torbat Heydarieh and the west of Zaveh), and the central zone of Zaveh, the contamination levels of arsenic in the soil were found to be moderate and very high, respectively. Saffron crops were estimated uncontaminated in all farms, except in eastern Zaveh and south of Torbat Heydarieh that were contaminated by chrome. According to both indices of load and degree of contamination, the soil of all saffron farms were found to be highly contaminated. Soil contamination was evaluated to be extreme by the using both pollution load Index (PLI) and contamination degree (CD). In addition, saffron threads were found to be totally uncontaminated (except in the south of Torbat Heydarieh, where the crop was moderately polluted), according to PLI and CD.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Contamination Indices
  • Neutron Activation Analysis
  • Saffron
  • Trace element
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