بررسی تأثیر وزن بنة مادری و دو روش کشت بر عملکرد گل و بنة دو اکوتیپ زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) در شرایط اقلیمی تبریز

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی امکان و شرایط بهینه کشت زعفران در منطقه تبریز، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایش شاملآ استفاده از دو اکوتیپ کاشمر و مرند در 4 سطح وزن بنه مادری (3 تا 5، 1/5 تا 7، 1/7 تا 9 و بیش از 9 گرم) و در دو روش کشت کپه‌ای و ردیفی بودند. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده نشان داد که شاخص‌های عملکرد بنه زعفران به‌طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر وزن بنه مادری و روش کشت قرار گرفتند، اما تأثیر دو اکوتیپ مورد کاشت معنی‌دار نبود. استفاده از بنه‌های مادری با وزن بیش از 9 گرم بیشترین تعداد کل بنه دختری در واحد سطح (65/342 بنه در مترمربع) و بیشترین عملکرد بنه‌های دختری (9/892 گرم در مترمربع) و همچنین بیشترین عملکرد گل را نشان داد. بررسی شاخص‌های گل‌دهی زعفران در سال 91 نشان داد که با افزایش وزن بنه‌های کشت شده، عملکرد گل نیز افزایش یافت. به‌نظر می‌رسد تولید بنه‌های با وزن بیشتر و به دنبال آن افزایش عملکرد گل، نیازمند استفاده از بنه‌های مادری درشت در زمان کشت می‌باشد. همچنین بیشترین عملکرد کلاله، در روش کشت ردیفی نسبت به کشت کپه‌ای مشاهده گردید. نتایج حاصل از تأثیر دو روش کشت بر تعداد و وزن بنه‌های دختری تولید شده، حاکی از برتری کشت ردیفی نسبت به کشت کپه‌ای بود. در مجموع، استفاده از بنه‌های مادری با وزن هفت گرم به بالا و نیز کاشت بنه‌ها با روش ردیفی تأثیر مثبتی بر رشد و عملکرد زعفران نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Effect of Maternal Corm and Planting Methods on Flower and Replacement Corms Yield of Two Ecotypes of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) in Tabriz

نویسنده [English]

  • Saeideh Alizadeh-Salteh
Tabriz. University of Tabriz. Faculty of Agriculture. Department of Horticultural Science
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate and access the best conditions to cultivate saffron in Tabriz, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of the University of Tabriz (Khalatpooshan), in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design and three replications. The treatments included two ecotypes of saffron in 4 levels of mother corm weight (3.1- 5, 5.1- 7, 7.1- 9 and more than 9 g) and two planting methods (row and mass).  The results showed that corm weight and planting method had significant effects on the number and weight of replacement corms. But there was no significant effect on the different ecotypes. Among the experimental treatments, corms with 7.1- 9 g weight lead to the highest total corm number (342.65 corm.m-2) and corm yield (892.9 g.m-2) and the yield of flowers and stigma of saffron. It seems that for production of larger replacement corms and increased flowering yield, we need to culture large maternal corms. In addition, we observed the best economical yield that is determined by amount of stigma, in row planting method. The results showed that row planting method leads to a higher amount and yield of replacement corm production in comparison to mass planting method. As a result, producing corms with high weight followed by increasing of flower yield requires the use of large maternal corms for cultivation and row planting method.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Replacement corm
  • Row planting method
  • Mass planting method
  • Stigma yield

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