اصول استانداردسازی تولید زعفران ارگانیک در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 استاد گروه پژوهشی زعفران، دانشگاه بیرجند

3 استاد گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

10.22048/jsat.2020.236760.1402

چکیده

بسیاری از مراحل تولید، فرآوری، تجارت و مصرف زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) در ایران بر مبنای دانش بومی پایه‌ریزی شده و بیشتر تولیدات این گیاه در مزارعِ کوچک با همکاری خانوادگی و با بهره‌گیری از نهاده‌ها و فناوری‌های محلیِ بوم‌سازگار شکل می‌گیرد. بر این اساس بخش قابل توجهی از تولید زعفران در ایران قرابت بالایی با اصول کشاورزی ارگانیک دارد، ولی از نظر قواعد و استانداردهای مربوط به این نظامِ تولیدی، صرفاً به‌عنوان محصول شبه‌ارگانیک تلقی می‌شود. کشاورزی ارگانیک یک نظام جامع تولید است که به جنبه‌های کمی و کیفی تولیدات کشاورزی در تمامی مراحل چرخة تولید از مزرعه تا سفره و نیز به مسایلی مانند عدالت، روابط اجتماعی، سلامت خاک و حقوق تمامی جانداران کوچک و بزرگِ دخیل در فرآیند تولید توجه می‌نماید. بر اساس این تعریف و با در نظر گرفتن اصولِ حاکم بر شیوه‌های تولید زعفران در بوم‌نظام‌های کشاورزی ایران، با ارایة استانداردهای پیشنهادی می‌توان زمینة مناسبی برای هدفمند شدن تولید ارگانیک این گیاه ایجاد نمود که ضمن افزایش درآمد کشاورزان منجر به حفظ و افزایش سهم ایران از بازار جهانی این گیاه دارویی ارزشمند، خواهد شد. در این مقاله، برای هر یک از مراحل چرخة تولید زعفران با کمک‌گیری از نتایج تحقیقات علمیِ مربوط به زعفران و نیز استانداردهای بین‌المللی، منطقه‌ای و ملیِ مرتبط با تولیدات ارگانیک، یکسری اصول کلی، پیشنهادها (توصیه‌ها)، الزامات و تبصره‌ها ارایه شده است. توصیه‌های ارایه شده عمدتاً با هدف افزایش عملکرد کمیِ محصول ارایه شده است، در حالی‌که با رعایت الزاماتِ پیشنهادی می-توان به کیفیت بالاتری از زعفران دست یافت. افزون بر این، مجموعه دستورالعمل‌های پیشنهادی در این مقاله، کمک خواهد نمود تا در کنار حفظ و بهبود کمیت و کیفیت محصول در تمامی مراحل چرخة تولید زعفران، سایر اهداف و قواعد مرتبط با کشاورزی ارگانیک نیز تأمین گردد. در برنامة پیشنهادی کنونی به موضوعات مرتبط با زراعت (تولید و انتخاب بنه، انتخاب و آماده‌سازی زمین، کاشت، تغذیه، آبیاری، کنترل عوامل تنش‌زای زنده و ...)، به‌نژادی، برداشت و پس از برداشت (جابجایی و ذخیره‌سازیِ گل؛ جداسازی، خشک کردن، درجه‌بندی، بسته‌بندی، برچسب‌زنی و ذخیره‌سازیِ کلاله) و نیز مختصری به موضوع فرآوری و مسایل حقوقی مربوط به تولید زعفران ارگانیک توجه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Principles of standardization for organic saffron production in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid-reza Fallahi 1
  • Mohammad. Ali Behdani 2
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 3
  • Majid Jami Al-Ahmadi 4
1 Assistance Professor, Department on Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran
2 Professor, Saffron Research Group, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran
3 Professor, Department on Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department on Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

Many activities during production, processing, trade and consumption of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Iran, are based on indigenous knowledge. Most share of saffron production in the country is obtained from small fields with family cooperation and using local environmental friendly inputs and technologies. Accordingly, a cosidarable part of saffron produced in Iran is close to the principles of organic farming, but in terms of rules and standards related to this production system, it is considered only as a quasi-organic product. Organic farming is a comprehensive production system that focuses on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of agricultural product during the production cycle (from farm to fork), as well as issues such as justice, social relations, soil health and the rights of all macro and mico organisms. Based on this definition and considering the principles and methods which are used for saffron production in Iranian agroecosystems, it is possible to create a targeted procrdure for its organic production, by perparation a standard. The preparation of this standard, while increasing farmers' incomes, will lead to maintaining and increasing Iran's share of the global market of this valuable medicinal plant. In this article, for all stages of saffron production cycle, using the results of scientific researches on saffron, as well as international, regional and national standards related to organic production, a set of general principles, suggestions (recommendations), requirements and notes are provided. The recommendations are mainly suitable for increasing the quantitative yield, while higher quality of saffron can be achieved by observing the proposed requirements. The guidelines proposed in this paper, besides improving the quantity and quality of the product, will also ensure the other objectives and rules related to organic farming. In the current proposed program, issues related to agronomy (corm production and selection, land selection and preparation, planting, soil nutrition, irrigation, control of biotic stresses, etc.), breeding, harvesting and post-harvest (flowers carrying and storage; separation, drying, grading, packing, labeling and storage of stigma) as well as processing and legal issues have been considered.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Basic IFOAM standard
  • Indigenous knowledge
  • local technology
  • Quasi-organic product
  • Stigma
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[1] - Participatory guarantee sysyems
[2] - Ignored organic farmers