ارزیابی تاثیرتراکم بوته، پوشش گیاهی و سایه‌اندازی برتعدیل دمای خاک و عملکرد زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی ، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی ، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

3 محقق، ایستگاه تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گناباد، مرکز تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

10.22048/jsat.2020.232941.1397

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر پوشش‌گیاهی و سایه اندازی بر عملکرد زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی گناباد برای دو سال زراعی98 -1397 و 99- 1398 اجراء شد. آزمایش شامل فاکتور اصلی، تراکم بنه در چهار سطح (90،60 ،120 و 150 بنه در متر مربع) و  فاکتور فرعی مدیریت بقایای گیاهی و سایه‌اندازی در چهار سطح (حذف بقایای زعفران در پایان فصل رشد به عنوان (شاهد)، حضور بقایای زعفران در پایان فصل رشد، (شاهد) + استفاده از کلش جو به میزان 2 تن در هکتار و در نهایت (شاهد) + استفاده از سایه‌بان) بود. با توجه به ماهیت فاکتور فرعی، داده‌های فصل دوم رشد مورد اندازه‌گیری و آنالیز قرار گرفت. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تراکم و مدیریت پوشش اثر معنی‌داری (p ≤0.01) بر ویژگی‌های رویشی زعفران (تعداد، طول و سطح برگ) داشته اما تأثیر تراکم و اثر متقابل تراکم× پوشش بر این صفات معنی‌دار نبود. همچنین نتایج تجزیه واریانس صفات اندازه‌گیری شده مرتبط با عملکرد نیز حاکی از تأثیر معنی‌دار (p ≤0.01)  تراکم بنه، مدیریت پوشش و اثر متقابل تراکم بنه × نوع پوشش بر تعداد، وزن گل و عملکرد اقتصادی کلاله بود. به‌نحوی که بیشترین مقدار عملکرد خشک کلاله و وزن تر گل به‌ترتیب با مقادیر 16/5 و 411 (کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار تراکم 150بنه در متر مربع و  مدیریت  استفاده از پوشش کلش غلات و کمترین این صفات به‌ترتیب با مقادیر 2/2 و 200 (کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار تراکم 60 بنه در متر مربع و پوشش شاهد حاصل شد. بررسی آنالیز رگرسیون گام به گام برای متغیرهای مرتبط با عملکرد اقتصادی زعفران نشان داد که تعداد گل در واحد سطح به ‌تنهایی توانست 59/90 درصد از تغییرات عملکرد اقتصادی زعفران را تبیین نمایند. با توجه به تأثیر مثبت استفاده از پوشش‌ بر تعدیل درجه‌حرارت خاک در مقایسه با حداکثر دمای روزانه هوا حداقل (7 درصد) و هم­زمان شدن اثرات مثبت این شیوه از مدیریت زراعی با مرحله گل‌انگیزی در زعفران به نظر می‌رسد که توصیه کاربردی استفاده از انواع پوشش بویژه کلش غلات با توجه به هزینه کمتر آن در مقایسه با سایه‌بان و همچنین دسترسی سهل‌تر برای پوشش مزارع زعفران همزمان با شروع فصل گرما می‌تواند در جهت پایداری و افزایش عملکرد زعفران مورد توجه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of the Effects of Plant Density, Vegetation Covering and Shading on Egulation of Soil Temperature and Yield of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Tavakkoli Kakhki 1
  • Hamidreza Sharifi 2
  • Zohreh Nabipour 3
1 Instructor Research of Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate professor of Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran
3 Researcher of Gonabad Agricultural and Natural Resource and Education station, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan Razavi, AREEO. Gonabad. Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of vegetation covering and shading on the economic yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) a split–plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications was conducted at the Gonabad station for two cropping years (2018-2019, 2019- 2020). Experiments included main factor, density at four levels (90, 60, 120 and 150 corms per square meter) and sub-factors of crop residue management and shading at four levels (removal of saffron residues at the end of growing season as (control), presence of saffron residues at the end of the growing season, (control) + use of 2 (t.ha-1) barley straw and finally (control) + use of shading). Due to the nature of sub-factors, the data for the second year of growth were measured and analyzed. The results of analysis of variance showed that density and cover management had a significant effect (p≤0.01) on the vegetative characteristics of saffron (number, length and leaf area). However, the effect of density and the interaction effect of density × covering on vegetative traits had not significant effect. Also, the results of measured traits related to yield showed that the effect of corm density, covering management and the interaction of corm density × type of covering on number, flower weight and economic stigma yield were significant (p≤0.01). The highest amount of dry stigma yield and fresh weight of flowers with values of 5.16 and 411 (kg.ha-1), respectively, achieved from the treatment of 150 corms per square meter density and use of cereal straw covering and the lowest of these traits with values of 2.2 and 200 (kg.ha-1) was obtained from the density of 60 corms per square meter and control. Stepwise regression analysis for variables related to saffron economic yield showed that the number of flowers per unit area alone could explain 90.59% of the variation in saffron economic performance. Considering the positive effect of covering application on adjusting soil temperature compared to the maximum daily air temperature (at least 7%) and the simultaneous positive effect of this method of cropping management with induction of flowering stage in saffron, it seems that the use of different types of covering, especially cereal straw, is recommended to stabilize and improve saffron yield due to its low cost and easier access to covering saffron fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flower
  • Green area
  • Mulch
  • Temperature
  • Yield
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