بررسی الگوی تخصصی شدن صادرات زعفران ایران در بازارهای هدف

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استاد اقتصاد کشاورزی، گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2020.220554.1383

چکیده

تئوری­های تجارت بین­المللی بر تخصصی شدن کشورها تأکید داشته و شرط انتفاع از تجارت را تخصصی شدن عنوان کرده­اند. ایران در صادرات زعفران به عنوان یکی از محصولات مهم و ارزآور کشور به بازارهای هدف با نوسانات و تغییراتی روبرو بوده است که تخصصی شدن در این بازارها را با تردید روبرو کرده است. از این رو، پژوهش حاضر به دنبال پاسخگویی به این پرسش است که آیا صادرات زعفران ایران در بازار جهانی و بازارهای هدف به سمت تخصصی شدن حرکت کرده است؟ به منظور دستیابی به این هدف شاخص مزیت نسبی آشکار شده و الگوی تخصصی شدن در دوره زمانی 2018-2001 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. یافته­های پژوهش دارای سه نتیجه اصلی است. اول، صادرات زعفران ایران با کاهش تخصصی شدن در بازار جهانی همراه بوده و اسپانیا به عنوان مهم­ترین رقیب صادراتی ایران در مسیر تخصصی شدن صادرات گام برداشته است. دوم، ایران در دوره زمانی 2009-2001 در صادرات زعفران دارای رویکرد تخصصی شدن بوده است که این موضوع در دوره زمانی 2018-2010 با کاهش تخصصی شدن همراه بوده است. سوم، ایران تنها در 15 درصد بازارهای هدف از بعد میزان صادرات (کشورهای چین، هند، هنگ­کنگ و آلمان) در مسیر افزایش تخصصی شدن بوده و در دیگر بازارها با کاهش تخصصی شدن همراه بوده است. از آنجا که تخصصی شدن در یک بازار از مسیر شناسایی مولفه­های جمعیت­شناختی آن بازار عبور می­کند، پیشنهاد می­شود که انعقاد قراردادهای بلندمدت با مشتریان زعفران ایران جهت اتخاذ و پیاده­سازی سیاست­های تولیدی و بازاریابی از طریق انطباق بیشتر تولید و صادرات زعفران ایران با فرهنگ مصرفی بازارها ایجاد شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Specialization Pattern of Iranian Saffron Exports in Destination Markets

نویسندگان [English]

  • Milad Aminizadeh 1
  • Hanane Aghasafari 1
  • Alireza Karbasi 2
1 PhD student of agricultural economics, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Professor of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Economics Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Theories of international trade have emphasized specialization of countries and have considered this as a prerequisite to gain profit from trade. Iran has experienced a variety of forms of export of saffron as one of its important and valuable products to destination markets, which has made specialization in these markets doubtful. Therefore, this research study seeks to find out whether export of Iranian saffron in the world market and destination markets is moving towards specialization or not? In order to achieve this objective, the revealed comparative advantage index and the specialization pattern were investigated in the period of 2001-2018. The research findings have three main results. First, Iran's saffron exports have been associated with a de-specialization in the world market, and Spain, as Iran's most important export competitor, is on the paths to export specialization. Second, Iran has been specialized in saffron exports for the period 2001-2009 and has experienced a de-specialization in the 2010-2018 period. Third, Iran has been on the path of increasing specialization in only 15 percent of the destination markets (China, India, Hong Kong and Germany), and has a de-specialization in other markets. Because specialization in the destination market goes beyond identifying the demographic components of that market, it is suggested that long-term contracts be concluded with customers to adopt and implement production and marketing policies by further adapting the production and export of Iranian saffron to the culture of consumer markets.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Destination markets
  • Export specialization
  • Iran
  • Revealed comparative advantage index
  • Saffron
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