مطالعه اثر مدیریت آبیاری و محلول پاشی محرک های رشد بر عملکرد کمی و برخی ویژگی های کیفی زعفران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی کشاورزی- گرایش زراعت – گروه کشاورزی، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

2 دانشیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی، گیاهان دارویی و علوم دامی، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

10.22048/jsat.2020.226314.1390

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر زمان آبیاری و محلول پاشی برخی محرک­های رشد بر زعفران، آزمایشی در دو سال زراعی 96- 1395  و 97-1396 در شهرستان زاوه  خراسان رضوی انجام و داده­های حاصل از سال دوم (97-1396) مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. آزمایش به صورت  کرت­های خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار بود. عامل اصلی مدیریت آبیاری در 4 سطح I1   (آبیاری اول طبق عرف منطقه یعنی 20 مهر ماه)، I2  (آبیاری اول ده روز دیرتر از عرف منطقه (30 مهر ماه))، I3 (آبیاری طبق عرف منطقه به همراه یک آبیاری اضافی ده روز پس از آخرین آبیاری (20 مهر ماه+ 10 اردیبهشت ماه)) و I4 (آبیاری اول ده روز دیرتر از عرف منطقه به همراه یک آبیاری اضافی ده روز پس از آخرین آبیاری (30 مهر ماه+ 10 اردیبهشت ماه))  بودند. همچنین  عامل فرعی شامل تیمارهای محلول پاشیG1   (شاهد بدون محلول پاشی)،G2  (محلول پاشی اسید سالسیلیک)، G3  (محلول پاشی کود کامل میکرو)، G4  (محلول پاشی نانو ذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم) و G5 (محلول پاشی نانوذرات دی اکسید سیلیسیم) بود. در این آزمایش صفات مختلف گل و بنه و ویژگی­های کیفی کلاله تعیین شد. نتایج مقایسه میانگین­های ویژگی­های بنه نشان داد تیمارهای محلول پاشی کود کامل میکرو و دی اکسید سیلیسیم بیشترین تعداد بنه دختری (56/5) را داشتند، به طوریکه کاربرد این دو ماده حدود 25 درصد افزایش نسبت به شاهد نشان دادند. همچنین آبیاریI4  با 06/7 کیلوگرم در هکتار کمترین، و آبیاری I1 با 463/10 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین مقدار وزن خشک کلاله و خامه را به خود اختصاص دادند. محلول­پاشی کود کامل میکرو با 275/10 کیلوگرم در هکتار وزن خشک کلاله و خامه برترین تیمار بود. بالاترین مقدار کروسین در بین تیمارهای محلول­پاشی مربوط به کود کامل با 5/264 و دی اکسید تیتانیوم با 8/263 میلی گرم بر گرم بود. مقدار پیکروکروسین در تیمارهای کود کامل و اسید سالیسیلیک نسبت به شاهد دارای افزایش بود. همچنین تیمار محلول پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک با مقدار 930/0 میلی گرم بر گرم بیشترین میزان کلروفیل را  نشان داد. به طور کلی به منظور کسب حداکثر عملکرد، آبیاری بر اساس عرف منطقه در 20 مهر ماه و همچنین مصرف کود کامل توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the Effect of Irrigation Management and Foliar Application of Growth Stimulator on Yield and Some Qualitative Traits of Saffron

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreza Maleki 1
  • Mohammadjavad Seghatoleslami 2
  • Gholamreza Mousavi 2
  • Hassan Feizi 3
1 Ph. D Student of Agriculture Department, Birjand branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Agricultural, Medicinal Plants and Animal Sciences Research Center, Birjand branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Deparetment of Crop Production, University of Torbat-e- Heydarieh
چکیده [English]

This experiment was carried out as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 and the data related to 2017-2018 were analysed. The irrigation time for the main plot (A) consisted of 4 levels including I1: control (traditional irrigation) on October 12, I2: irrigation at 10 days after I1, I3: I1+ one additional irrigation after the last irrigation (April 30), I4: the first irrigation time was done 10 days later than the traditional irrigation+ one additional irrigation 10 days after the last irrigation. Sub plot (B) was the foliar application of various stimulators including of G1: control, G2: acid salicylic, G3: Complete micro fertilizer, G4: nano Tio2, G5: nano Sio2. In this experiment different traits of corm and flower and stigma quality were determined. The results indicated that foliar application of complete micro fertilizer and Sio2 nanoparticles had the highest number of daughter corms. Moreover,both of them caused 25 percent increase overthe control group. Irrigation times at I4 and I1 yielded the maximum and minimum contents of dry weight of style and stigma. Foliar application of complete micro fertilizer was the best treatment in terms of dry weight of style and stigma.  The most contents of crocin among various fertilizers belonged to complete micro and Tio2 nanoparticles. The highest amount of picrocrocin belonged to complete micro fertilizer and salicylic acid. The salicylic acid foliar application was the best treatment in terms of chlorophyll content of saffron leaves. In conclusion the first irrigation on October 12 and using complete micro fertilizer are reconded.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought
  • Nano oxide titanium
  • Saffron quality
  • Saffron style yield
  • Salicylic Acid
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