تأثیر مقادیر مختلف تراکم و وزن بنه مادری بر عملکرد بنه و گل زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) در شرایط اقلیمی مشهد

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات، آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی.

2 محقق، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات، آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

3 محقق، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات، آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی.

4 کارشناس ارشد، سازمان جهاد کشاورزی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

 به‌منظور بررسی اثر تراکم و وزن بنه مادری بر ویژگی‌های زراعی و رفتار بنه‌های دختری زعفران آزمایشی طی سال‌های 93-1389 به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات در زمان در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 12 تیمار و سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی به اجرا درآمد. عامل‌های مورد بررسی در آزمایش شامل سه سطح تراکم بنه (40،،80 و 160 بنه در مترمربع) و چهار سطح وزن اولیه بنه‌های مادری شامل (3 ≥، 6-3، 9-6 و 12-9 گرم) بودند که به‌صورت فاکتوریل در کرت‌های اصلی و عامل زمان در کرت‌های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر تراکم، وزن بنه مادری و سال بر وزن بنه‌های دختری، معنی‌دار بود. اما اثر متقابل تراکم × وزن بنه مادری و همچنین اثر متقابل تراکم × وزن بنه مادری × سال برای اکثر صفات اندازه‌گیری شده معنی‌دار نبود. نتایج مقایسه میانگین اثر تراکم × وزن بنه مادی بر تعداد بنه‌های دختری نشان داد که در بین تیمارهای مورد آزمایش استفاده از بنه‌های مادری 12-9 گرم با تراکم 160 بنه در مترمربع بیشترین تولید تعداد کل بنه‌های دختری (771 در مترمربع) در واحد سطح را به همراه داشت. بنه‌های مادری با وزن بالاتر، تعداد بنه‌های دختری بیشتری در گروه‌های وزنی مختلف تولید نموده‌اند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که بنه‌های مادری در گروه‌های وزنی کمتر قادر به تولید بنه‌های دختری با وزن بیشتر از وزن بنه مادری اولیه بودند. با افزایش تراکم و وزن بنه مادری تعداد گل، وزن گل و عملکرد کلاله خشک به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت، به‌طوری‌که بیشترین وزن خشک کلاله زعفران در واحد سطح (65/0 گرم بر مترمربع) از بنه‌های مادری با وزن 12-9 گرم به دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Different Amounts of Density and Mother Corm Weight on Corm and Flower Yield of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) Under Mashhad's Climate

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Tavakkoli kakhki 1
  • Ali Mokhtarian 2
  • Mohamad Hossein Binabaji 1
  • Hassan Hamidi 3
  • Ramin Esmi 4
1 Faculty member, Seed and Plant Improvement Recearch Departement, Research and Education Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Khorasan, Iran
2 Researcher, Seed and Plant Improvement Recearch Departement, Research and Education Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Khorasan, Iran.
3 Researcher, Seed and Plant Improvement Recearch Departement, Research and Education Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Khorasan, Iran.
4 M.Sc.of Jahade- Keshavarzi Organization, Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of planting density and maternal corm weight on some characteristics of daughter corms and agronomic characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Mashhad. This experiment was carried out as a factorial split plot in time based on complete block design with three replications and 12 treatments during the years 2010-2014. The experimental factors were 3 levels of density (40, 80 and160 corm in m2) and 4 levels of mother corm weight (≤3, 3-6, 6-9 and 9-12 g per corm) as a main plot and time as a sub plot. The results showed that density, maternal corm weight and year had significant effects on daughter corm’s weight, but the effect of interaction density × corm weight and density × weight × year were not significant for the most characteristics. The mean comparison of interaction effect of density × weight for number of daughter corm showed that maternal corm weight (9-12 g) × planting density (160 m2) had the highest number for daughter corms (771 m2). Maternal corms with higher initial weight produced the highest number of corms in different corm classes. In addition, the results showed that maternal corm with lower initial weight produced heavy daughter corms compared to other maternal corm weight classes. Flower weight and stigma dry weight of saffron (m2) were increased by increasing planting density and maternal corm weight flower number. The highest dry stigma (0.65 g.m-2) yield was produced by maternal corm (9-12 g per corm) weight class.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corm weight
  • corm number
  • Daughter corm
  • Dry stigma weight
  • Flower weight

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