بررسی خصوصیات بنه‌های دختری زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) در پاسخ به تاریخ کاشت، مدیریت آبیاری و کاشت گیاهان همراه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 استادیار گروه پژوهشی زعفران، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند.

3 دانشجوی دکتری بوم‌شناسی کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

چکیده

انتخاب و تهیه بنة مناسب از عوامل مهم کسب عملکرد مطلوب در زراعت زعفران می‌باشد. به‌منظور مطالعه اثر برخی فاکتورهای زراعی بر رشد بنه‌های دختری زعفران، آزمایشی در فاصله سال‌های 90-1388 به‌صورت کرت‌های دو بار خردشده بر مبنای طرح پای‌ بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل تاریخ کاشت (اول خرداد، اول مرداد و اول مهرماه سال 1388)، مدیریت آبیاری (آبیاری و عدم انجام آبیاری پس از هر تاریخ کاشت و تکرار آن در سال دوم به‌عنوان آبیاری تأخیری بهاره، آبیاری تابستانه و آبیاری زودهنگام پاییزه) و کاربرد گیاهان همراه در مزرعه زعفران [شبدر ایرانی (Trifolium resupinatum)، خلر (Lathyrus sativus) و شاهد] بودند. در پایان چرخة دوم رشد زعفران (بهار سال 1390) نمونه‌برداری از بنه‌های دختری صورت گرفت و پاسخ رشدی آن‌ها به فاکتورهای آزمایشی، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که با تأخیر در کاشت از خرداد به مهرماه، تعداد بنه‌های دختری و تعداد ریشه‌های انقباضی در هر کلون به ترتیب 25 و 33 درصد افزایش یافت. با این وجود، مقادیر وزن کل بنه‌های دختری در هر کلون، تعداد جوانه گل‌دهنده در هر بنه، تعداد کل جوانه‌ها در هر بنه و نیز وزن و قطر هر بنه دختری در تاریخ کاشت خردادماه به ترتیب 21، 70، 40، 32 و 37 درصد بیشتر از تاریخ کاشت مهرماه بود. تیمار آبیاری، موجب افزایش 12 درصدی تعداد بنه‌های دختری و ریشه‌های انقباضی در هر کلون و کاهش 19 درصدی تعداد جوانه گل‌دهنده، کاهش 11 درصدی تعداد کل جوانه‌ها و نیز کاهش 19 درصدی وزن تک بنه و کاهش 8 درصدی قطر هر بنة دختری شد. کاربرد گیاهان همراه نیز بر برخی از خصوصیات زراعی بنه‌های دختری زعفران مانند وزن کل بنه‌های دختری موجود در هر کلون (8 درصد)، نسبت وزن بنه به پوشال (14 درصد)، تعداد جوانه‌ های گل‌دهنده (10 درصد) و وزن متوسط هر بنة دختری (10 درصد) تأثیر مثبت داشت. در مجموع، کاشت بنه‌های زعفران در طول دوره استراحت حقیقی، عدم انجام آبیاری پس از کاشت، پرهیز از آبیاری تابستانه در اول مردادماه و کاربرد گیاهان همراه، متوسط وزن بنه‌های دختری تولیدشده به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین عامل اثرگذار بر عملکرد زعفران را افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Study of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) Replacement Corms Growth in Response to Planting Date, Irrigation Management and Companion Crops

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Koocheki 1
  • Parviz Moghaddam 1
  • Hamid-reza Fallahi 2
  • Mahsa Aghhavani-Shajari 3
1 Professor of Agroecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad,
2 Assistant Professor, Saffron Research Group, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
3 Ph.D Student in Agroecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Selection of suitable mother corms is an important factor for achieving optimum yield in saffron. In order to investigate the effect of some agronomic factors on the growth of replacement corms of saffron, an experiment was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2009-2011. The experimental treatments  consisted of planting on the following dates (22 May, 22 July and 22 September, 2009), irrigation management (Irrigation and no irrigation after each planting date and repeating them in the second year in late spring, summer and early autumn  irrigations) and companion crops [Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum), Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) (Lathyrus sativus) and control), that were arranged in a split-split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Sampling of replacement corms was done after the second growth cycle of saffron in May, 2011. The results showed that with delay in corm planting from May to September, the number of replacement corms and percentage of corms with contractile root increased by 25 and 33%, respectively. However, the amounts of total weight of replacement corms per clone, mean number of flowering buds per corm, mean number of total buds per corm, mean weight and mean diameter of replacement corms planted in July were 21, 70, 40, 32 and 37% higher than those planted in September, respectively. Irrigation increased the amount of contractile roots and number of replacement corms per clone (12%), but decreased the amount of mean number of flowering buds (19%), mean number of total buds (11%) and mean weight (19%) and diameter (8%) of replacement corms. Moreover, application of companion crops had a partially positive impact on the indices of growth of replacement corms of saffron such as follows: the total weight of replacement of corms per clone (8%), corms to scales weight ratio (14%), number of flowering buds (10%) and mean weight of replacement corm (10%). Overall, mother corm planting during real dormancy, no irrigation after planting and during summer as well as application of associated crops have a positive effect on the mean weight of replacement corms as the main important factor in saffron flowering.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flowering bud
  • Bitter vetch
  • Persian clover
  • Real dormancy
  • Summer Irrigation

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