مقایسه شاخص‌های کارایی فنی و اقتصادی مصرف آب در تولید گندم و زعفران در شهرستان قائنات

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش اموخته کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

3 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

4 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

یکی از عوامل مهم در تعیین سیستم‌های کشاورزی مناسب مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک، بهره‌وری آب آن‌ها می‌باشد. این تحقیق با هدف تعیین شاخص‌های کارایی فنی و اقتصادی مصرف آب محصولات زعفران و گندم و هم‌چنین شناخت عوامل تأثیرگذار بر آن در شهرستان قائنات واقع در استان خراسان جنوبی به اجرا درآمد که در آن 50 مزرعه گندم و 48 مزرعه زعفران در طی سال زراعی 91-1390 مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. اطلاعات لازم از قبیل عملکرد محصول، نوع منبع آبیاری، دبی منبع آبیاری، تعداد و مدت زمان آبیاری از طریق پرسشنامه جمع‌آوری گردید. حجم آب آبیاری کاربردی برای تولید محصول تعیین و بر مبنای آن شاخص‌ کارایی فنی و اقتصادی مصرف آب محاسبه گردید. بر اساس نتایج حاصله شاخص کارایی مصرف آب برای کل زیست‌توده و دانه تولیدی گندم به ترتیب 91/0 و 36/0 کیلوگرم در مترمکعب و برای کل زیست‌توده و کلاله تولیدی زعفران 36/0 و 002/0 کیلوگرم در مترمکعب به دست آمد. میانگین کارایی اقتصادی مصرف آب در کل منطقه مورد بررسی برای گندم 4041 و برای زعفران 39962 ریال به ازای هر مترمکعب آب مصرفی برآورد گردید که مزارع پنج‌ساله زعفران با بالاترین عملکرد بیشترین مقدار این شاخص‌ را بین سنین مختلف مزارع زعفران به خود اختصاص دادند. در محصول گندم تحصیلات زارعین و مساحت مزرعه از عوامل تأثیرگذار بر دو شاخص مورد بررسی شناخته شد. هم‌چنین بین دو شاخص مورد نظر و شوری خاک مزارع ارتباط منفی و معنی‌داری مشاهده گردید.

تازه های تحقیق

 

شکل 1- کارایی اقتصادی مصرف آب در هر بخش شهرستان قائن برای گندم و زعفران

Figure 1- Economic water use efficiency in Ghaen’s districts for wheat and saffron

 

شکل 2- شاخص کارایی اقتصادی مصرف آب برای سنین مختلف مزارع زعفران

 Figure 2- Economic water use efficiency for different ages of saffron farms.

 میانگین­ های دارای حروف مشترک تفاوت معنی‌داری بر اساس آزمون دانکن در سطح احتمال پنج درصد ندارند.

Means with the same letters have not significant difference at 5% probability based on Duncans test

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Indicators of Technical and Economic Water Use Efficiency in Saffron and Wheat Production Systems in the Qaenat Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Yaghobi 1
  • Majid Jami Al-Ahmadi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Bakhshi 3
  • Mohammad Hassan Sayyari 4
1 M.Sc of Agroecology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand
2 Associate Professor of Agronomy Department, University of Birjand
3 Assistant Prof. of Agronomy Department, University of Birjand
4 Associate Professor of Soil Science Department, University of Birjand
چکیده [English]

The main objective of this research was to determine indicators of technical and economic water use efficiency in the cultivation of saffron and wheat in the Qaenat region located in the South Khorasan province in Iran), where 50 wheat farms and 48 saffron farms were investigated during 2011 and 2012. For this purpose, the necessary information about farmer’s age and education, crop yield, the area under wheat and saffron cultivation, type of irrigation source, water flow rate and the number and duration of irrigation were collected by using a questionnaire. The results showed that the calculated indicator of water use efficiency was 0.84 and 0.34 kg.m-3 for wheat total biomass and grain and 0.36 and 0.002 kg.m-3 for saffron total biomass and stigma, respectively. Economic water use efficiency was estimated to be 23706.43 and 1836.89 Rials per cubic meter of water use in saffron and wheat production systems, respectively. There was a significant difference between the different ages of saffron farms for economic water use efficiency and the maximum value of this indicator was related to five-year old farms. Education of the farmers and the area under cultivation were identified as  factors influencing  the studied measures for wheat. Also, the results showed that there is a significant negative correlation between economic water use efficiency and soil salinity.

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