مقایسه‌ی ﭘﺮﻭﻓﺎﯾﻞ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻮﻟﯿﮑﯽ زﻋﻔﺮﺍن‌ﻫﺎی مناطق مختلف استان خراسان رضوی ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎس ﺧﺍﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﯿﺎﯾﯽ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺍز ﺗﮑﻨﯿﮏ ﮐﺮﻭﻣﺎﺗﻮﮔﺮﺍﻓﯽ ﮔﺎزی-ﻃﯿﻒ ﺳﻨﺠﯽ ﺟﺮﻣﯽ (GC-MS)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد،گروه شیمی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استادیارگروه شیمی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 استادیار گروه ایمنی و کنترل کیفیت مواد غذایی، موسسه پژوهشی علوم و صنایع غذایی، مشهد، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2021.245568.1408

چکیده

زعفران گیاهی از گونه کروکوس ساتیووس از ارزشمندترین گیاهان بومی ایران بوده و در جهان به عنوان گران قیمت‌ترین ادویه و طلای سرخ مشهور شده است. ﻛﻼﻟﻪ زعفران ﺣﺎوی ﺳﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ اﺻﻠﻲ ﻛﺮوﺳﻴﻦ (رنگدانه های کاروتنوئیدی محلول در آب)، ﭘﻴﻜﺮوﻛﺮوﺳﻴﻦ (ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮزﻳﺪ ﺗﻠﺦ مزه) و ﺳﺎﻓﺮاﻧﺎل (ﺟﺰء اﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﻮاد ﻓﺮار ﻣﻌﻄﺮ زعفران) ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ. این مطالعه به منظور تعیین و مقایسه‌ی متابولیت‌های موجود در ﺍﻧﻮﺍع زﻋﻔﺮﺍن‌ﻫﺎی ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭت ﺑﺮ‌ﺍﺳﺎس خاستگاه ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﯿﺎﯾﯽ آن­ها با استفاده از تکنیک کروماتوگرافی گازی-طیف سنجی جرمی انجام شد و 12 متابولیت فرار مربوط به زعفران‌های هفت منطقه مختلف خراسان رضوی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفتند. این مناطق عبارت بودند از تایباد، نیشابور،تربت حیدریه، تربت جام، زاوه، رشتخوار و کاشمر. نتایج تجزیه و تحلیل‌های آماری ( تست آنالیز واریانس ANOVA و به دنبال آن تست دانکن) نشان دادند که در سطح اطمینان 95% این نمونه‌ها در سطح پنج متابولیت فرار در این مناطق تفاوت معنی‌دار داشته و همین امر باعث تمایز زعفران مناطق مختلف از یکدیگر شده است. این متابولیت‌های فرار شامل سافرانال، مگاستیگما 4-6-8 ترین، آلفا گایین، ایکوزان و ویتامین E می باشند که مسئول عطر و خواص درمانی زعفران هستند. نتایج این مطالعه نشان می دهد که علیرغم شباهت در محتویات متابولیکی زعفران ها تفاوت‌های معناداری بین سطح برخی ازمتابولیت‌ها وجود دارد اگرچه این مناطق نزدیک به هم هستند. این تفاوت‌ها نشان می‌دهد که این زعفران‌ها می توانند به اهداف مختلفی شامل صنایع دارویی، غذایی، آرایشی و بهداشتی استفاده شوند. زعفران تربت جام مناسب برای استفاده در صنایع غذایی می‌باشد چون متابولیت مسئول عطر در آن غلظت بالایی دارد و زعفران منطقه تایباد مناسب برای مصرف در صنایع دارویی، آرایشی و بهداشتی می‌باشد. کیفیت زعفران کاشمر از بقیه پایین‌تر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of metabolic profile in different Saffron samples based on their geographical origin using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques (GC-MS)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohsen Mousavi 1
  • Maryam Khoshkam 2
  • Javad Feizi 3
1 Masters student, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Of Mohaghegh
2 Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Of Mohaghegh Ardabili,
3 Assistant professor of Chemistry, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology, Department of Food Quality Control and Safety, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Saffron is a plant from Crocus Sativus species which is one of the most valuable indigenous herbs in Iran and is known as the most expensive spice and red gold. Saffron stigma consists of three major constituents including crocin (water soluble caretenoid pigments), picocrocin (bitter glycoside tasting) and safranal (the major volatile constituents in saffron aroma). The aim of this study was determination and comparison of existed metabolites in different types of saffron based on their geographical origins using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques (GC-MS) and 13 volatile metabolites were determined and compared in different saffron samples from seven different regions of Khorasan Razavi province. These regions were Taybad, Neyshabour, torbate heydarieh, torbate jam, Zaveh and Kashmar.The results from statistical analysis (analysis of variance ANOVA followed by Duncan test) show that the level of metabolites were different in different regions and this can be the main reason of their discrimination against each other. These volatile metabolites were safranal, Megastigma-4,6(Z),8(Z)-triene, α-Guaiene, icosane and vitamine E. The results of this study show that in spite of similarities of constituents of these saffron samples, there are significant differences between the levels of metabolites in these regions although these region are close to each other. These differences show that these saffron can be applied in different purposes including pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and health industries depending on their origin. Saffron of Torbat-e-jam is proper for food industries since it is rich in aroma and Taibad is proper for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and health industries. The quality of Kashmar saffron is worse than other regions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy
  • Geographical origin
  • saffron volatile metabolites
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