بررسی اثر رفتار جبرانی تراکم کاشت، وزن بنه مادری و عمق کاشت بر خصوصیات رویشی و عملکرد زعفران (Crocus.sativus L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی ، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

2 محقق، ایستگاه تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گناباد، مرکز تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

3 مربی پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی ، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

10.22048/jsat.2021.272865.1420

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر رفتار جبرانی تراکم کاشت، وزن بنه و عمق کاشت بر خصوصیات رویشی و عملکرد کلاله زعفران (Crocus.sativus L.)، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی (ایستگاه تحقیقات گناباد) در سال‌های زراعی 1399-1397 انجام شد. در این تحقیق تیمار تراکم کاشت (در چهار سطح 60، 90، 120 و 150 بنه در مترمربع) در کرت اصلی و فاکتوریل عمق کاشت (در دو سطح2±15 و 2±25سانتی‌متر از سطح خاک) و وزن بنه (در دو سطح 1±4و 1±8 گرم) در کرت فرعی قرار داشتند. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش تراکم از 60 به 150 بنه در مترمربع باعث افزایش معنی‌دار تعداد گل، وزن تر گل و وزن خشک کلاله ،تعداد بوته سبز شده، تعداد برگ در بوته، میانگین طول تک برگ و مجموع طول برگ در متر مربع شد. بر این اساس افزایش وزن بنه از 4 به 8 گرم موجب افزایش معنی‌دار تعداد گل، وزن تر گل، وزن خشک کلاله، تعداد بوته سبز شده، تعداد برگ در بوته، میانگین طول تک برگ، مجموع طول برگ در متر مربع و مجموع طول برگ در بوته در سال اول و دوم و کاهش تعداد گل، وزن تر گل و وزن خشک کلاله در سال سوم شد. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که افزایش عمق کاشت از 15 به 25 سانتی‌متر سبب کاهش معنی‌دار تمام صفات مورد بررسی زعفران گردید. اثر متقابل دوگانه و سه گانه بر صفات مورد بررسی عمدتاً معنی‌دار بود. در مجموع نتایج نشان داد استفاده از بنه‌های مادری درشت‌تر تنها در سال‌های اولیه از اولویت نسبی برخوردار بوده و با افزایش سن مزرعه از اهمیت اثر آن کاسته می‌شود. بر این اساس چنین به نظر می‌رسد که می‌توان در راهبردی متفاوت و با ترکیبی از عمق کمتر و بخصوص تراکم بیشتر نسبت به جبران اثر وزن بنه اقدام و در مجموع به عملکرد بیشتری دست یافت .

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the effect of compensatory behavior of planting density, mother corm weight and planting depth on vegetative characteristics and yield of saffron (Crocus.sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamidreza sharifi 1
  • zohreh nabipour 2
  • Hamid Reza Tavakkoli Kakhki 3
1 Associate professor of Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran
2 Researcher of Gonabad Agricultural and Natural Resource and Education station, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan Razavi, AREEO. Gonabad. Iran.
3 Instructor Research of Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of compensatory behavior of planting density, corm weight and planting depth on vegetative characteristics and yield of saffron stigma (Crocus. Sativus L.), a factorial split plot experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replications in the research center and Agricultural education and natural resources of Khorasan Razavi (Gonabad Research Station) was conducted in the cropping years 2018-2020. In this study, planting density treatment (in four levels of 60, 90, 120 and 150 corms per square meter) in the main plot and factorial planting depth (in two levels of 15±2 and 25±2 cm from the soil surface) and corm weight (in two Levels 4± 1 and 8 ± 1 gr) were located in the subplot. The results showed that increasing the density from 60 to 150 corms per square meter caused a significant increase in flower number, flower fresh weight and stigma dry weight, number of plants, number of leaves per plant, average length of a leaf and total leaf length per square meter. Accordingly, increasing the weight of coriander from 4 to 8 gr significantly increases flower number, flower fresh weight, stigma dry weight, number of plants, number of leaves per plant, average length of a leaf, total leaf length per square meter and total Leaf length per plant in the first and second years and reduced flower number, flower fresh weight and stigma dry weight in the third year. The results also showed that increasing the planting depth from 15 to 25 cm caused a significant decrease in all studied traits of saffron. The effect of dual and triple interactions on the studied traits was mainly significant. Overall, the results showed that the use of larger mother corms has a relative priority only in the early years and the importance of its effect decreases with increasing farm age. Based on this, it seems that it is possible to have a different strateg and with a combination of less depth and especially more density to compensate for the effect of corm weight and achieved more overall performance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Compensatory behavior
  • Leaf length
  • Leaf Number
  • flower number
  • Stigma yield
 
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