مطالعه تنوع ژنتیکی و برخی از صفات زراعی و کیفی در زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری زراعت، اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه.

3 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه.

4 استاد، دانشکده بیومهندسی، دانشگاه اگه، ازمیر، ترکیه.

چکیده

به‌منظور مطالعه تنوع ژنتیکی و زراعی زعفران، شش اکوتیپ از نقاط مختلف استان خراسان (مشهد، تربت‌جام، گناباد، تربت‌حیدریه، قاین و بیرجند) جمع‌آوری و در طی دو سال زراعی 93-1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج مزرعه‌ای نشان داد که اختلاف معنی‌داری بین اکوتیپ‌ها از لحاظ اکثر صفات زراعی و کیفی مورد مطالعه وجود دارد. به‌طوری‌که تجزیه خوشه‏ای، اکوتیپ‏های تربت‌حیدریه، مشهد و تربت‌جام را در یک خوشه‏ و اکوتیپ‏های بیرجند، قاین و گناباد را در خوشه‏ دیگر گروه‌بندی نمود. همچنین نتایج حاصل از مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که اکوتیپ‏های تربت‌حیدریه و مشهد به ترتیب به‏‌عنوان بهترین‏ اکوتیپ‏های زعفران در ارومیه شناخته شدند. از طرفی نتایج ژنتیکی نشان داد که از بین 30 جفت آغازگر SSR مورد استفاده، 22 جفت آغازگر (73%)، در مجموع 44 آلل چندشکلی را شناسایی نمودند (میانگین 2 عدد). میانگین شاخص شانون (I)، تنوع ژنتیکی (h) و محتوی اطلاعات چندشکلی (PIC) به ترتیب 688/0، 424/0 و 402/0 تخمین زده شد که این نتایج از وجود تنوع ژنتیکی در بین اکوتیپ‌های زعفران خبر می‌دهد و این تنوع توسط تجزیه‌های دیگری از جمله تجزیه واریانس مولکولی مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. از طرفی نتایج حاصل از تجزیه خوشه‏ای داروین، هر کدام از اکوتیپ‏های بیرجند، مشهد و گناباد را در یک خوشه‏ و سه اکوتیپ تربت‌حیدریه، قاین و تربت‌جام را به‌دلیل شباهت بالا همگی را در یک خوشه‏ قرار داد و این گروه‌بندی توسط تجزیه به مؤلفه‏های اصلی مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. قابل ذکر است شباهت ژنتیکی بالایی بین اکوتیپ‏های زعفران (90-65 درصد) تخمین زده شد. در مجموع نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق ضمن بیان این موضوع که نشانگرهای ریزماهواره ابزار مفیدی برای ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی و گروه‏بندی اکوتیپ‌های زعفران هستند. این موضوع را نیز تأیید نمود که زعفران گیاهی منومورف نبوده و می‌توان تنوع مفیدی را جهت استفاده در برنامه‌های اصلاحی شناسایی کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of genetic diversity and some of quality and agronomic traits in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahdi bayat 1
  • reza amirnia 2
  • mahdi tajbakhsh 3
  • bahattin tanyolac 4
1 graduated of agronomy Ph.D. – Crop Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
3 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Bioengineering, EBILTEM institute, EGE University, Izmir, Turkey
چکیده [English]

In order to study genetic diversity and some of the quality and agronomic traits in saffron, six cultivated ecotypes were collected from different regions of the Khorasan province (Mashhad, Torbat-Jam, Gonabad, Torbat-Heydarieh, Qaen and Birjand) and they were evaluated during two cropping seasons in 2011-13 in the research farm of the agricultural faculty, Urmia University, Urmia-Iran. The farming results showed that there were significant differences between the ecotypes in the studied agronomic and qualitative traits. Thus,, the cluster analysis grouped ecotypes Torbat-Heydarieh, Mashhad and Torbat-Jam in a cluster and ecotypes Birjand, Qaen and Gonabad in the other cluster. The results of mean comparison also showed that ecotypes Torbat-Heydarieh and Mashhad were the best saffron ecotypes in the Urmia condition. On the other hand, the genetic results showed that 22 of 30 SSR primers (73%) detected a total of 44 polymorphic alleles (average 2). The average of Shannon index (I), genetic diversity (h) and polymorphic information content (PIC) were estimated to be 0.688, 0.424 and 0.402, respectively. These results not only clarified the existence of genetic diversities among saffron ecotypes, but also, the genetic diversities were proven with other analyses such as analysis of molecular variance. The results of cluster analysis of Darwin grouped each ecotype of Birjand, Mashhad and Gonabad in a cluster and three ecotypes. Torbat-Heydarieh, Qaen and Torbat-Jam were placed in the same cluster because of their high genetic similarity. This grouping was confirmed by principal coordinate analysis. It was notable that high genetic similarities were estimated between saffron ecotypes (65-90%). Overall, the results of this research not only introduced microsatellite molecular markers as useful tools for evaluating genetic diversity and grouping of saffron ecotypes, but also confirmed that saffron is not a monomorphic plant and we can identify useful genetic diversities for breeding programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cluster analysis
  • Genetic parameters
  • Genetic similarity
  • Microsatellite markers (SSR)

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