اثر غلظت و تعداد دفعات محلول پاشی سیلیس بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی زعفران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2021.269270.1419

چکیده

این پژوهش به­صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در شهرستان مشهد در سال زراعی 1397-1396 بر روی یک مزرعه سه ساله زعفران اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل غلظت­های مختلف سیلیس (صفر، 3/0، 5/0، 75/0، 1، 2/1 و 5/1 لیتر درهکتار) و تعداد دفعات پاشش سیلیس (یک مرتبه، دو مرتبه و سه مرتبه) بود. محلول­پاشی سیلیس (با برند تجاری کراپسیل) در تاریخ­های 15 بهمن ماه ، اول اسفند ماه و 15 اسفندماه سال 1396 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر اصلی سیلیس، تعداد دفعات پاشش و اثر متقابل آن­ها بر تمام صفات مورد بررسی معنی­دار بود. مقایسه میانگین اثرهای متقابل فاکتورهای آزمایشی حاکی از آن بود که در غلظت 2/1 لیتر در هکتار محلول­پاشی سیلیس در دو نوبت پاشش، بیشترین تعداد گل در بوته (693 گل)، وزن خشک برگ (56/3 گرم در گیاه)، وزن تر بنه­ها (25/67 گرم در گیاه)، طول کلاله (8/3 سانتی­متر)، وزن تر و خشک کلاله (به ترتیب 5/1656 و 39/14 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، سافرانال (33 درصد) و کروسین (75/192 درصد) به­دست آمد. بیشترین میزان پیکروکروسین (35/66 درصد) در غلظت 5/1 لیتر در هکتار در دو نوبت پاشش به­دست آمد. لذا، کاربرد سیلیس با غلظت 2/1 لیتر در هکتار در دو مرحله پاشش بهترین تیمار بود و توانست تعداد گل در بوته، وزن تر بنه­ها و وزن خشک کلاله را به ترتیب 5/26 ، 106 و 2/21 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of concentration and frequency of silica foliar application on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of saffron

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansoore Kermani 1
  • Shahram Amirmoradi 2
1 Assistant Professor ، Department of Agriculture، Payam Noor university، Iran
2 Assistant Professor ، Department of Agriculture، Payam Noor university، Iran
چکیده [English]

This research was carried out as factorial experiment basis on randomized block design with four replications on a three-year saffron farm in Mashhad at 2017/2018 crop year. The experimental factors were different concentrations of silica (0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.2 and 1.5 lit/ha) and the number of spraying times (Once, twice and three times). Silica spraying (with Crapsil brand) was performed on February 6, March 1 and March 6, 2017.The results showed that the main effect of silica, the number of sprays and their interaction on all studied traits were significant. Mean comparisons of the experimental factors revealed that at the concentration of 1.2 lit/ha silica and two times of spraying, the highest number of flowers per plant(693 flowers), leaf dry weight(3.56 gr/plant), fresh weight of corm(67.25 gr/plant), stigma length(3.8 cm), fresh and dry weight of stigma(1656.5 and 14.39 kg/ha respectively),Safranal (33%) and crocin (192.75%) obtained. The highest amount of picrocrocin (66.35%) was obtained at the concentration of 1.5 lit/ha and two times of spraying. Therefore, the application of silica with the concentration of 1.2 lit/ha in the two stages of spraying was the best treatment and was able to increase the number of flowers per plant, fresh weight of corms and dry weight of stigma 26.5, 106 and 21.2 percent, respectively compared with the control treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Picrocrocin
  • Silica
  • Crocin
  • Stigma
  • Safranal
 
Adatia, M.H., and Besford, R.T. 1986. The effects of silicon on cucumber plants grown in recirculating nutrient solution. Annals of Botany 58: 343-351.
Ahmad, M., Hassen F., and Khurshid, Y. 2011. Dose silicon and irrigation have impact on drought tolerance mechanism of sorghum? Agricultural Water Management 98 (12): 1808-1812.
Amini Darbandi, K., and Pour Akbar, L. 2016. Effect of silicate, titanium and silver nanoparticles on some physiological and biochemical factors of saffron under UV-B stress. 19th National and 7th International Congress of Biology, 30 Aug-1 Sep 2016. University of Tabriz, Iran.
Artyszak, A., Gozdowski, D., and Kucinska, K. 2016. Effect of foliar fertilization with silicon on the chosen physiological features and yield of sugar beet. Fragmenta Agronomica 33 (2): 7–14.
Asemeh, M., and Pourakbar, L. 2017. Effect of silicate nanoparticles on some physiological and biochemical parameters of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under salt stress. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary).
Askarnejad, M., Sodaeei Zadeh, H., Mosleh Arani, A., Yazdani Biouki, R., and Mavandi, P. 2019. Effect of silicon on increasing drought tolerance of stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under moisture stress. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences 12: 847-863. (In Persian with English Summary).
Atefi, M. 2006. Saffron, Chemistry, Quality, Control Processing. Beinonahrein Publication.
Bayat, H., Nemati, S.H., and Selahvarzi, Y. 2012. Effect of silicon on growth and some physiological characteristics of Persian petunia (Petunia hybrida). Journal of Horticultural Science 26: 10-16. (In Persian with English Summary).
Bayat, H., Alirezaie, M., Nemati, H., and Abdollahi saadabad, A. 2013. Effect of silicon on growth and ornamental traits of salt-stressed calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Journal of Ornamental Plants 3 (4): 207- 214.
Biaber, B., Cureuett, J.T., and Kipnes, R.S. 2004. Biologic defense mechanisms. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 85: 235-244.
Cai, K., Gao, D., Chen, J., and Luo, S. 2009. Probing the mechanisms of silicon–mediated pathogen resistance. Plant Signal Behavior 4 (1): 1-3.
Cherf, M., Menzies, J.G., Ehret, D.L., Bopgdanoff, C., and Belanger, R.R. 1994. Yield of cucumber infected with Pythium aphanidermatum when grown with soluble silicon. Horticultural Science 29: 896-897.
Cruden, R.W. 2000. Pollen grains: why so many? Plant Systematic and Evolution 222: 143-165.
Crusciol, C.A.C., Pulz, A.L., Lemos, L.B., Soratto, R.P., and Lima, G.P.P. 2009. Effects of silicon and drought stress on tuber yield and leaf biochemical characteristics in potato. Crop Science 49: 949-954.
Delavar, K., Ghanati, F., Zare-Maivan, H., and Behmanesh, M. 2019. Effects of silicon nutrition on the physiological parameters of maize. Journal of Plant Process and Function 7 (27): 45-58. (In Persian with English Summary).
El-kinany, R.G., and Nasser, A.M.K. 2019. Effect of silicon levels and application methods on growth and quality characteristics of Narcissus tazetta L. Alex Journal of Agricultural Science 64 (4): 231-243.
Epstein, E. 1994. The anomaly of silicon in plant biology. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA. 91 (1): 11–17.
Evans, W.C. 1996. Pharmacognosy. Volatile Oils and Resins. 14th Edition. John Wiley. New York.
Fahimi, J., Bouzoubaa, Z., Achemchem, F., Saffah, N., and Mamouni, R. 2017. Effect of silicon on improving salinity tolerance of talioune crocus sativus L. Acta Horticulture 1184: 219-228.
Fahimi, J., Bouzoubaa, Z., Achemchem, F., Saffah, N., and Mamouni, R. 2018. Effect of silicon application on taliouine Crocus sativus L. cultivation under salt stress. International Journal of Research Granthaalayah 6 (9): 291-300.
Fallah, A. 2000. Effects of silicon and nitrogen on growth, lodging and spiklet filing in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Ph.D. Dissertation, University of the Philippines Los Banos . Philippine..
Gholami, Y., Derakhshan Shadmehri, A., Gholami, A., Falah, A., and Gholipor, M. 2015. Effect of different sources and amounts of silicon fertilizer on growth, yield and infestation rate of stem borer in two rice cultivars of Hashemi Tarom and 843 lines. Journal of Agronomy Sciences 5 (10): 53-64. (In Persian with English Summary).
Gong, H.Z., Chen, K., Wans, S., and Zhang, C. 2005. Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Plant Science 169: 313-321.
Gonzalez-Peres, E., Ayala-Garay, O.J., and Yanes-Morales, M.J. 2014. Indications that some nutritional elements can improve gladiolus corm and cromel qualities in Mexico. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 74 (1): 67-72.
Grilli-Caiola, M. 2004. Saffron Reproductive Biology. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Biotechnology. Albacete, Spain. 22-25 October 2003. p. 25-37.
Hajipour,  H., Jabbarzadeh, Z., and Rasouli Sadaghiani, M.H. 2019. Effect of foliar application of silica on some growth, biochemical and reproductive  characteristics and leaf elements of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Fellbacher Wein). Jouranl of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture 10 (1): 29-46. (In Persian with English Summary).
Ichimura, K., Kojima K., and Goto, R. 1999. Effects of temperature, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate and sucrose on the vase life of cut rose flowers. Postharvest Biology and Technology 15 (1): 33-40.
INSO. 2006. Iranian National Standards Organization. (In Persian)
Jaleel Zadeh, E., Jabbar zadeh, Z., and Nowrouzi, P. 2018. Effect of spraying of different source and concentrations of silicon on some morphological and physiological characteristics of Rose cv Beverly Watson. Jouranl of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture 9 (3): 65-77. (In Persian with English Summary).
Jian-peng, F., Qing-hua, S., and Xiu-feng, W. 2009. Effects of exogenous silicon on photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities in chloroplast of cucumber seedlings under excess manganese. Agricultural Science in China 8 (1): 40-50.
Kamenidou, S., and Cavins, T.J. 2008. Silicon supplements affect horticultural traits of greenhouse-produced ornamental sunflower. Horticulturae Science 43 (1): 236-239.
Kazemi, M., Gholami, M., and Hassanvand, F. 2012. Effect of silicon on antioxidative defense system and membrane lipid peroxidation in gerbera cut flower. Asian Journal Biochemistry 7 (3): 171-176.
Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H. 2007. Principles of Plant Nutrition. Isfahan University of Technology Press. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A.R., Najibnia, S., and Lalehgani, B. 2009. Evaluation of saffron yield (Crocus sativus L.) in intercropping with cereals, pulses and medicinal plants. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 7 (1): 175-184. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A.R., Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., and Azimi, R. 2012. The effect of irrigation intervals and intercropped marjoram (Origanum vulgare) with saffron (Crocus sativus) on possible cooling effect of corms for climate change adaptation. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 11 (3): 390-400. (In Persian with English Summary).
Liang, Y., Nikolic, M., Belanger, R., Gong, H., and Song, A. 2015. Silicon in Agriculture: from Theory to Practice. Springer, Netherlands.
Loomis, W.D., and Corteau, R. 1972. Essential oil biosynthesis. Journal of Recent Advance in Phytochemistry 6: 147-185.
Ma, J.F., and Yamaji, N. 2006. Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trend in Plant Science 11 (8): 392-397.
Mahdavi, M., Esmaielpour, B., and Fatemi, H. 2018. Effect of silicon nutrition on growth and physiology of spearmint (Mentha spicata) under cadmium stress condition. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences 49 (1): 185-198. (In  Persian with English Summary).  
Malakouti, M.J., and Homayi, M. 2004. Fertile Soild of Arid Regions, "Problems and Solutions". Second edition. Tarbiat Modarres University Press. Iran. (In Persian).
Mali, M., and Aery, N.C. 2008. Silicon effects on nodule growth, dry matter production, and mineral nutrition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171: 835-840
Mali, M., and Aery, N.C. 2009. Effects of silicon on growth, biochemical constituents, and mineral nutrition of cowpea. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 40: 1041-1052.
Markovich, O., Steiner, E., Kouril, S., Tarkowski, P., Aharoni, A., and Elbaum, R. 2017. Silicon promotes cytokinin biosynthesis and delays senescence in Arabidopsis and Sorghum. Plant Cell and Environment 40: 1189-1196.
Mirabbasi Najafabadi, N., Nikbakht, A., Etemadi, N., and Sabzalian, M.R. 2013. Effect of different concentrations of potassium silicate, nano-silicon and calcium chloride on concentration of potassium, calcium and magnesium, chlorophyll content and number of florets of Asian lily cv. Brunello. Journal of Science and Technology 4 (2): 41-50. (In Persian with English Summary).
Mirzapour, M.H., and Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H. 2009. Iron fertilization effects on growth, yield and oil seed content of sunflower grown on a saline-sodic calcareous soil. Agricultural Research 8 (4): 61-74. (In Persian with English Summary).
Mohammadnia, R., Rezaei Nejad, A., and Bahraminejad, S. 2018. Effect of irrigation interval and silicon on some morpho-physiological and biochemical properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences 49 (1): 37-45. (In Persian with English Summary).
Mosapour Yahyaabadi, H., and Asgharipour, M.R. 2016. Effect of silicon foliar application on yield and some physio-chemical properties of fennel under limited irrigation. Journal of Crops Improvement (Journal of Agriculture) 17 (4): 1035-1048. (In Persian with English Summary).
Naghdi Abadi, H., Omidi, H., Golzad, A., Torabi, H., and Fotookian, M.H. 2011. Change in crocin, safranal and picrocrocin content and agronomical characters of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under biological and chemical of phosphorous fertilizers. Journal of Medicinal Plants 10 (40): 58-68. (In Persian with English Summary).  
Pacicni, E., and Nepi, M. 2007. Nectar production and presentation. In S.W., Nicolson, M. Nepi, and E. Pacini (eds). Nectaries and Nectar. Springer, Dordrecht. p. 167-214.
Reezi, S., Babalar, M., and Kalantari, S. 2009. Silicon alleviates salt stress, decreases malondialdehyde content and affects petal color of salt-stressed cut rose (Rosa Ïhybrisa L.) "Hot Lady". African Journal of Biotechnology 8 (8): 1502-1508.
Reezi, S., Mohammadi, L., and Barzegar, R. 2018. Increasing nutritional absorption and photosynthetic pigments by silicon spray in new Guinea impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri) in soilless conditions. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science 49 (1): 223-230. (In Persian with English Summary).
Rehman, B., Yusuf, M., Alam Khan, T., Fariduddin, Q., Hayat, Sh., and Ahmad, A. 2016. Silicon elicited varied physiological and biochemical responses in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea): a concentration dependent study. Occupied Palestine Journal of Plant Science 63 (3): 1-9.
Romero-Aranda, M. R, Jurado, O., and Cuartero, J. 2006. Silicon alleviates the deleterious salt effect on tomato plant grow by improving plant water status. Journal of Plant Physiology 163: 847-855.
Rubinowska, K., Pogroszewska, E., Laskowska, H., Szot, P., Zdybel, A., Stasiak, D., and Kozak, D. 2014. The subsequent effect of silicon on physiological and biochemical parameters of Polygonatum multiforum L. All. "Variegatum" cut shoots. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Culturs 13 (1): 167-178.
Savvas, D., and Ntatsi, G. 2015. Biostimulant activity of silicon in horticulture. Scientia Horitculturae 196: 66-81.
Shen, X., Zhou, Y., Duan, L., Li, Z., Eneji, A.E., and Li, J. 2010. Silicon effects on photosynthesis and antioxidant parameters of soybean seedlings under drought and ultraviolet-B radiation. Journal of Plant Physiology 167 (15): 1248-1252.
Silva, O.N., Lobato, A.K.S., Martins Filho, A.P., Lemos, R.P., Pinho, J.M., Medeiros, M., Cardos, M.S., and Avila, F.W. 2012. Silicon contributes to increase chlorophyll and this response is modulated by leaf water potential in two tomato cultivars exposed to water deficiency. Plant Soil Environment 58: 481-486.
Sivanesan, I., Son, M.S., Song, J.Y., and Jeong, B.R. 2013. Silicon supply through the sub irrigation system affects growth of three chrysanthemum cultivars. Horticultural Environment and Biotechnology 54 (1): 14-19.
Soad, A., Khenizy, M., and Ibrahim, H.E. 2015. Effect of silicon and or NPK treatment on growth, flowering and corm production in gladiolus. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture 42 (2): 839-851.
Statistical Center of Iran. 2017. Statistical yearbook of Khorasan Razavi province. Chapter One. (In Persian).
Statistical Center of Iran. 2018. Statistical Yearbook of Khorasan Razavi province. Chapter One. (In Persian).
Torabi, F., Majd, A., Enteshari, Sh., and Irian, S. 2013. Study of effect of silicon on some anatomical and physiological characteristics of borage (Borago officinalis L.) in hydroponic conditions. Journal of Cell and Tissue 4 (3): 275-285. (In Persian with English Summary).
Tripathi, D.K., Rai, P., Guerriero, G., Sharma, S., Corpas, F.J., and Singh, V.P. 2021. Silicon induces adventitious root formation in rice under arsenate stress with involvement of nitric oxide and indole-3-acetic acid. Journal of Experimental Botany 72 (12): 4457-4471.
Zare, F., Khorasaninenezhad, S., and Hemmati, Kh. 2018. The effect of silicon on some morpho-physiological and phytochemical traits of Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.) under salinity stress. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology 10 (37): 55-68. (In Persian with English Summary).