نگاهی جامع به کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن و فسفر در زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) گیاهی است که از نظر بیولوژیکی یک ساله است، اما می‌تواند در شرایط زراعی به عنوان گیاهی چند ساله مورد کشت قرار گیرد. وجود اختلالات سیتولوژیکی به صورت ژنوم تریپلوئیدی و نیز خود ناسازگاری، عوامل ایجاد پدیده عقیمی در زعفران می‌باشند. از این رو، رشد زعفران هر ساله از طریق مناطق مریستمی که در سطح بنه‌ مادری قرار دارد، انجام می‌شود. با فعال شدن این مریستم‌ها رشد بنه‌های دختری در سطح بنه مادری آغاز می‌گردد. همزمان با رشد بنه‌های دختری در طی فصل رشد، بنه مادری به تدریج رو به تحلیل می‌رود. هر بنه دختری تشکیل شده نیز به نوبه خود در فصل بعد، یک بنه مادری تلقی می‌شود که می‌تواند جهت کشت مجدد استفاده شود. به دلیل ماهیت رشد چند ساله زعفران در شرایط زراعی، تحلیل بنه‌های مادری در طی فصل رشد و انتقال عناصر غذایی از اندام‌های هوایی به بنه‌های دختری در انتهای هر فصل رشد، مطالعه مکانیسم جذب و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن و فسفر در زعفران پیچیده‌تر از گیاهان یکساله و یا دو ساله می‌باشد. در این مقاله ابتدا به توصیف مکانیسم جذب نیتروژن و فسفر در اندام‌های هوایی و بنه‌های گیاه پرداخته شده است. در ادامه مهم‌ترین عوامل مؤثر در بهبود کارایی مصرف نیتروژن و فسفر در زعفران و ارتباط بین کارایی مصرف نیتروژن و فسفر مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comprehensive Look at Nitrogen and Phosphorus Use Efficiency in Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Koocheki 1
  • Seyyed Mohammad Seyyedi 2
1 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 PhD. Student of Crop Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is an annual plant from a biological aspect, but it has a perennial cycle in the field conditions. Cytological impairments such as triploid and self-incompatibility mechanisms are considered as the most important reasons for male-sterility in saffron. Therefore, saffron reproduction is made by meristems tissues and establishment of new daughter corms which are produced by the mother corms. During the growing season, mother corms deteriorate gradually with increasing daughter corms growth. Each daughter corm is considered as a mother corm for replanting in the next growing season. Duo to the life cycle of saffron as a perennial plant in the field conditions, the gradual deterioration of mother corms during the growing season and also the remobilization of nitrogen and phosphorus from aerial part to daughter corms at the end of each growing season, the study of acquisition and use efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in saffron is more complicated than other annual or biannual plants. Firstly, the objective of this review article is to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in aerial parts and daughter corms in saffron. In addition, relevant literature related to the most important strategies for improving nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency is reviewed. Secondly, the relationship between nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency in saffron is discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Daughter corms
  • Mother corms
  • perennial plant

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