عنوان مقاله [English]
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is an annual plant from a biological aspect, but it has a perennial cycle in the field conditions. Cytological impairments such as triploid and self-incompatibility mechanisms are considered as the most important reasons for male-sterility in saffron. Therefore, saffron reproduction is made by meristems tissues and establishment of new daughter corms which are produced by the mother corms. During the growing season, mother corms deteriorate gradually with increasing daughter corms growth. Each daughter corm is considered as a mother corm for replanting in the next growing season. Duo to the life cycle of saffron as a perennial plant in the field conditions, the gradual deterioration of mother corms during the growing season and also the remobilization of nitrogen and phosphorus from aerial part to daughter corms at the end of each growing season, the study of acquisition and use efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in saffron is more complicated than other annual or biannual plants. Firstly, the objective of this review article is to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in aerial parts and daughter corms in saffron. In addition, relevant literature related to the most important strategies for improving nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency is reviewed. Secondly, the relationship between nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency in saffron is discussed.
Aghaei, M., and Rezagholizadeh, M. 2011. Iran's comparative advantage in production of saffron. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 25: 121–132. (In Persian with English Summary).
Ali, G., Iqbal, A.M., Nehvi, F.A., Samad, S.S., Nagoo, S., Naseer, S., and Dar, N.A. 2013. Prospects of clonal selection for enhancing productivity in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). African Journal of Agricultural Research 8: 460–467.
Amirshekari, H., Sorooshzadeh, A., Modaress Sanavy, A., and Jalali Javaran, M. 2007. Study of effects of root temperature, corm size, and gibberellin on underground organs of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Biology 19: 5–18. (In Persian with English Summary).
Anbessa, Y., and Juskiw, P. 2012. Review: Strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency of spring barley. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 92: 617–625.
Ankumah, R.O., Khan, V., Mwamba, K., and Kpomblekou-A, K. 2003. The influence of source and timing of nitrogen fertilizers on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of four sweet potato cultivars. 2003. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 100: 201–207.
AOAC, 2000. Official methods of analysis (17th ed.) Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Bagheri, A., and Vessal, S. 2003. Saffron improvement in Iran, breakthroughs and barriers. 3rd National Symposium on Saffron. 2-3 December 2003, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary).
Bationo, A., and Kumar, K.A. 2002. Phosphorus use efficiency as related to sources of P fertilizers, rainfall, soil, crop management, and genotypes in the West African semi-arid tropics. Food Security in Nutrient-Stressed Environments 95: 145–154.
Bayuelo-Jiménez, J.S., and Ochoa-Cadavid, I. 2014. Phosphorus acquisition and internal utilization efficiency among maize landraces from the central Mexican highlands. Field Crops Research 156: 123–134.
Bertheloot, J., Martre, P., and Andrieu, B. 2008. Dynamics of light and nitrogen distribution during grain filling within wheat canopy. Plant Physiology 148: 1707–1720.
Bosch-Serra, A.D., Ortiz, C., Yagüe, M.R., and Boixadera, J. 2015. Strategies to optimize nitrogen efficiency when fertilizing with pig slurries in dryland agricultural systems. European Journal of Agronomy 67: 27–36.
Burstein, C., Loyter, A., and Racker, E. 1971. Effect of phospholipases on the structure and function of mitochondria. TheJournal of Biological Chemistry 246: 4075–4082.
Chaji, N., Khorassani, R., Astaraei, A.R., and Lakzian, A. 2013. Effect of phosphorous and nitrogen on vegetative growth and production of daughter corms of saffron. Journal of Saffron Research 1: 1–12. (In Persian with English Summary).
Dawson, J.C., Huggins, D.R., and Jones, S.S. 2008. Characterizing nitrogen use efficiency in natural and agricultural ecosystems to improve the performance of cereal crops in low-input and organic agricultural systems. Field Crops Research 107: 89–101.
Delogu, G., Cattivelli, L., Pecchioni, N., De Falcis, D., Maggiore, T., and Stanca, A.M. 1998. Uptake and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter barley and winter wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 9: 11–20.
Dordas, C. 2009. Dry matter, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation: partitioning and remobilization as affected by N and P fertilization and source–sink relations. European Journal of Agronomy 30: 129–139.
Fageria, N.K., and Barbosa Filho, M.P. 2007. Dry-matter and grain yield, nutrient uptake, and phosphorus use-efficiency of lowland rice as influenced by phosphorus fertilization. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38: 1289–1297.
Fageria, N.K., Moreira, A., and Dos Santos, A.B. 2013. Phosphorus uptake and use efficiency in field crops. Journal of Plant Nutrition 36: 2013–2022.
Foroughifar, H., and Poor-Kasmani, M.E. 2002. Soil Science and Management. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press. (In Persian).
Gao, X., Li, C., Zhang, M., Wang, R., and Chen, B. 2015. Controlled release urea improved the nitrogen use efficiency, yield and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on silt loamy soil. Field Crops Research 181: 60–68.
Gresta, F., Lombardo, G.M., Siracusa, L., and Ruberto, G. 2008. Effect of mother corm dimension and sowing time on stigma yield, daughter corms and qualitative aspects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in a Mediterranean environment. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88: 1144–1150.
Guarda, G., Padovan, S., and Delogu, G. 2004. Grain yield, nitrogen-use efficiency and baking quality of old and modern Italian bread-wheat cultivars grown at different nitrogen levels. European Journal of Agronomy 21: 181–192.
Hopkins, B., and Ellsworth, J. 2005. Phosphorus availability with alkaline/calcareous soil. Western Nutrient Management Conference, Salt Lake City, UT. 6: 88–93.
Ju, C., Buresh, R.J., Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Liu, L., Yang, J., and Zhang, J. 2015. Root and shoot traits for rice varieties with higher grain yield and higher nitrogen use efficiency at lower nitrogen rates application. Field Crops Research 175: 47–55.
Kafi, M. 2002. Saffron, Production and Processing. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press. 276 pp. (In Persian).
Koocheki, A. 2003. With saffron in the world, fears and hopes. 3rd National Symposium on Saffron. 2-3 December 2002, Mashhad, Iran.
Koocheki, A., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2015a. Phonological stages and formation of replacement corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during growing period (review article). Journal of Saffron Research (Accepted for publication). (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2015b. Relationship between nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as affected by mother corm size and fertilization. Industrial Crops and Products 71: 128–137.
Koocheki, A., Ganjeali, A., and Abbassi, F. 2007. The effect of duration and condition of incubation, weight of mother corms and photoperiod on corm and shoot characteristics of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 4: 315–331. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Jahani, M., Tabrizi, L., and Mohammad Abadi, A.A. 2011. Investigation on the Effect of biofertilizer, chemical fertilizer and plant density on yield and corm criteria of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Water and Soil 25: 196–206. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Molafilabi, A., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2014a. The effects of high corm density and manure on agronomic characteristics and corms behavior of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the second year. Journal of Saffron Research 1: 144–155. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Seyyedi, S.M., and Jamshid Eyni, M. 2014b. Irrigation levels and dense planting affect flower yield and phosphorus concentration of saffron corms under semi-arid region of Mashhad. Northeast Iran. Scientia Horticulturae 180: 147–155.
Koocheki, A., Seyyedi, S.M., and Jamshid Eyni, M. 2016. Uptake efficiency of nitrogen in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as affected by irrigation levels and high corm density. Seed and Plant Production Journal 30: 441-456. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Seyyedi, S.M., Azizi, H., and Shahriyari, R. 2014c. The effects of mothercorm size, organic fertilizers and micronutrient foliar application on corm yield and phosphorus uptake of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Saffron Agronomy and Technology 2: 3–16. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Tabrizi, L., Jahani, M., and Mohammad Abadi, A.A. 2012. An evaluation of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corm planting rate and pattern on the crop's performance. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science 42: 379–391. (In Persian with English Summary).
Korkmaz, K., Ibrikci, H., Karnez, E., Buyuk, G., Ryan, J., Ulger, A.C., and Oguz, H. 2009. Phosphorus use efficiency of wheat genotypes grown in calcareous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32: 2094–2106.
Kumar, R., Singh, V., Devi, K., Sharma, M., Singh, M.K., and Ahuja, P.S. 2009. State of art of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) agronomy: A comprehensive review. Food Reviews International 25: 44–85.
Limon-Ortega, A., Govaerts, B., and Sayre, K.D. 2008. Straw management, crop rotation, and nitrogen source effect on wheat grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency. European Journal of Agronomy 29: 21–28.
Liu, J., Liu, H., Huang, S., Yang, X., Wang, B., Li, X., and Ma, Y. 2010. Nitrogen efficiency in long-term wheat–maize cropping systems under diverse field sites in China. Field Crops Research 118: 145–151.
Lu, D., Lu, F., Pan, J., Cui, Z., Zou, C., Chen, X., He, M., and Wang, Z. 2015. The effects of cultivar and nitrogen management on wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency in the North China Plain. Field Crops Research 171: 157–164.
Mando, A., Ouattara, B., Sédogo, M., Stroosnijder, L., Ouattara, K., Brussaard, L., and Vanlauwe, B. 2005. Long-term effect of tillage and manure application on soil organic fractions and crop performance under Sudano-Sahelian conditions. Soil and Tillage Research 80: 95–101.
Masclaux-Daubresse, C., Daniel-Vedele, F., Dechorgnat, J., Chardon, F., Gaufichon, L., and Suzuki, A. 2010. Nitrogen uptake, assimilation and remobilization in plants: challenges for sustainable and productive agriculture. Annals of Botany 105: 1141–1157.
Moayedi Shahraki, E., Jami Al-Ahmadi, M., and Behdani, M.A. 2010. Study of energy efficiency of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Southern Khorasan. Journal of Agroecology 2: 55–62. (In Persian with English Summary).
Murphy, J., and Riley, J.P. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 31–36.
Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Boroumand Rezazadeh, Z., and Tabrizi, L. 2007. Effects of corm size and storage period on allocation of assimilates in different parts of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 5:155–166. (In Persian with English Summary).
Nicanuzia dos Prazeres, J., Veríssima Ferreira, C., and Aoyama, H. 2004. Acid phosphatase activities during the germination of Glycine max seeds. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 42: 15–20.
Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., and Dean, L.A. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. United States Department of Agriculture, Circular no. 939.
Omidi, H., Naghdibadi, H.A., Golzad, A., Torabi, H., and Fotoukian, M.H. 2009. The effect of chemical and bio-fertilizer source of nitrogen on qualitative and quantitative yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Medicinal Plant 8: 98–109.
Ourry, A., Boucaud, J., and Salette, J. 1988. Nitrogen mobilization from stubble and roots during re-growth of defoliated perennial ryegrass. Journal of Experimental Botany 39: 803–809.
Ram, M., Ram, D., and Roy, S.K. 2003. Influence of an organic mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and herb and essential oil yields in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens). Bioresource Technology 87: 273–278
Ramaekers, L., Remans, R., Rao, I.M., Blair, M.W., and Vanderleyden, J. 2010. Strategies for improving phosphorus acquisition efficiency of crop plants. Field Crops Research 117: 169–176.
Rasmussen, I.S., Dresbøll, D.B., and Thorup-Kristensen, K. 2015. Winter wheat cultivars and nitrogen (N) fertilization—Effects on root growth, N uptake efficiency and N use efficiency. European Journal of Agronomy 68: 38–49.
Renau-Morata, B., Nebauer, S.G., Sánchez, M., and Molina, R.V. 2012. Effect of corm size, water stress and cultivation conditions on photosynthesis and biomass partitioning during the vegetative growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Industrial Crops and Products 39: 40–46.
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2014. The effects of organic and biological fertilizers on phosphorus and potassium uptake by black Seed (Nigella sativa L.). Journal of Horticultural Science 28: 43–53. (In Persian with English Summary).
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Koocheki, A., Molafilabi, A., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2013. Effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on replacement corm and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 15: 234–246. (In Persian with English Summary).
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Koocheki, A., Molafilabi, A., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2013b. The effects of different levels of applied wheat straw in different dates on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) daughter corms and flower initiation criteria in the second year. Saffron Agronomy & Technology 1: 55–70. (In Persian with English Summary).
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Seyyedi, S.M., and Azad, M. 2014. Effects of organic, chemical and biological sources of nitrogen on nitrogen use efficiency in black seed (Nigella sativa L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 30: 260–274. (In Persian with English Summary).
Rodrigues, M.A., Pereira, A., Cabanas, J.E., Dias, L., Pires, J., and Arrobas, M. 2006. Crops use-efficiency of nitrogen from manures permitted in organic farming. European Journal of Agronomy 25: 328–335.
Sadeghi, A. 2003. Saffron is a cultural heritage, a national concern. 3rd National Symposium on Saffron. 2-3 December 2003, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary).
Safadoust, A., Mosadeghi, M.R., Mahboubi, A.A., Norouzi, A., and Asadian, G.H. 2007. Short-term tillage and manure influences on soil structural properties. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 11: 91–100. (In Persian with English Summary).
Salvagiotti, F., Castellarín, J.M., Miralles, D.J., and Pedrol, H.M. 2009. Sulfur fertilization improves nitrogen use efficiency in wheat by increasing nitrogen uptake. Field Crops Research 113: 170–177.
Sameni, A.M., and Kasraian, A. 2004a. Effect of agricultural sulfur on characteristics of different calcareous soils from dry regions of Iran. II. Reclaiming effects on structure and hydraulic conductivity of the soils under saline-sodic conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 35: 1235–1246.
Sameni, A.M., and Kasraian, A. 2004b. Effect of agricultural sulfur on characteristics of different calcareous soils from dry regions of Iran. I. disintegration rate of agricultural sulfur and its effects on chemical properties of the soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 35: 1219–1234.
Schachtman, D.P., Reid, R.J., and Ayling, S.M. 1998. Phosphorus uptake by plants: from soil to cell. Plant Physiology 116: 447–453.
Schröder, J.J., Smit, A.L., Cordell, D., and Rosemarin, A. 2011. Improved phosphorus use efficiency in agriculture: A key requirement for its sustainable use. Chemosphere 84: 822–831.
Seyyedi, S.M., Ghorbani, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2012. The effects of weed interference durations on percentage and phosphorus and potassium uptake efficiency in black seed (Nigella sativa L.) and its weeds. Journal of Plant Protection 26: 82–91. (In Persian with English Summary).
Seyyedi, S.M., Ghorbani, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2013. Nitrogen use efficiency and harvest index in black seed (Nigella sativa L.) at different weed competition durations. Journal of Plant Production 20: 141–156. (In Persian with English Summary).
Seyyedi, S.M., Khajeh-Hosseini, M., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Shahandeh, H. 2015a. Relation between the increasing soluble phosphorus and nitrogen uptake and its effects on phosphorus harvest index of black seed. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 46: 25–36. (In Persian with English Summary).
Seyyedi, S.M., Khajeh-Hosseini, M., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Shahandeh, H. 2015b. Effects of phosphorus and seed priming on seed vigor, fatty acids composition and heterotrophic seedling growth of black seed (Nigella sativa L.) grown in a calcareous soil. Industrial Crops and Products 74: 939–949.
Shenoy, V.V., and Kalagudi, G.M. 2005. Enhancing plant phosphorus use efficiency for sustainable cropping. BiotechnologyAdvances 23: 501–513.
Simpson, R.J., Oberson, A., Culvenor, R.A., Ryan, M.H., Veneklaas, E.J., Lambers, H., Lynch, J.P., Ryan, P.R., Delhaize, E., Smith, F.A., Smith, S.E., Harvey, P.R., and Richardson, A.E. 2011. Strategies and agronomic interventions to improve the phosphorus-use efficiency of farming systems. Plant and Soil 349: 89–120.
Singh, K.K., Srinivasarao, C., and Ali, M. 2005. Root growth, nodulation, grain yield, and phosphorus use efficiency of lentil as influenced by phosphorus, irrigation, and inoculation. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36: 1919–1929.
Tahir, S., Alam, S.M., and Ahmad, Z. 2011. Wheat yield and phosphorus fertilizer efficiency as influenced by pre-incubated use of single superphosphate and poultry litter and its time of application, Journal of Plant Nutrition 34: 1034–1040.
Veneklaas, E.J., Lambers, H., Bragg, J., Finnegan, P.M., Lovelock, C.E., Plaxton, W.C., Price, C.A., Scheible, W., Shane, M.W., White, P.J., and Raven, J.A. 2012. Opportunities for improving phosphorus-use efficiency in crop plants. NewPhytologist 195: 306–320.
Wang, X., Shen, J., and Liao, H. 2010. Acquisition or utilization, which is more critical for enhancing phosphorus efficiency in modern crops? Plant Science 179: 302–306.