تأثیر مصرف خاکی و محلول‌پاشی ریز جانداران مؤثر بر ویژگی‌های رشدی زعفران در حضور کودهای شیمیایی و آلی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد سبزوار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، سبزوار، ایران

2 مربی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد سبزوار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، سبزوار، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد سبزوار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر روش مصرف ریزجانداران مؤثر بر ویژگی‌های رشدی زعفران در حضور کودهای شیمیایی و آلی، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 93-1392 در شهرستان ششتمد خراسان رضوی انجام شد. آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی آزمایش شامل روش مصرف ریزجانداران مؤثر (EM) در سه سطح عدم مصرف، مصرف خاکی EM و محلول‌پاشی EM و فاکتور فرعی شامل مصرف کودهای آلی و شیمیایی در چهار سطح عدم مصرف، مصرف خاکی اسید هیومیک، مصرف خاکی کود 20, 20, 20+TE و مصرف خاکی اسید هیومیک + مصرف خاکی 20, 20, 20+TE بودند. نتایج نشان داد که مصرف خاکی و محلول‌پاشی EM ارتفاع بوته را تحت تأثیر قرار نداد، اما باعث افزایش معنی‌دار تعداد بنه، عملکرد بنه، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و تعداد جوانه در هر بنه در مقایسه با شرایط عدم مصرف EM گردید. متوسط وزن بنه در واکنش به مصرف خاکی و محلول‌پاشی EM کاهش یافت. بیشترین تعداد بنه (33/220 در مترمربع)، عملکرد بنه (33/1023 گرم در مترمربع) و وزن خشک اندام هوایی (02/43 گرم در مترمربع) در تیمار مصرف خاکی EM، بیشترین تعداد جوانه در بنه (68/8) در تیمار محلول‌پاشی EM و بیشترین متوسط وزن بنه (10/5 گرم) در شرایط عدم مصرف EM به دست آمد. استفاده از کود 20, 20, 20+TE و همچنین مصرف تلفیقی اسید هیومیک و کود 20, 20, 20+TE باعث افزایش تعداد بنه، عملکرد بنه، وزن خشک اندام‌ هوایی و تعداد جوانه در بنه در مقایسه با شرایط عدم مصرف کود و همچنین مصرف خاکی اسید هیومیک گردید. بیشترین متوسط وزن بنه در تیمار مصرف خاکی اسید هیومیک به‌دست آمد. مصرف خاکی و محلول‌پاشی EM باعث بهبود واکنش ویژگی‌های رشدی زعفران به مصرف کودهای آلی و شیمیایی گردید. با توجه به نتایج، مصرف خاکی EM و کود 20, 20, 20+TE جهت تولید حداکثر عملکرد بنه در زعفران قابل توصیه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Soil and Foliar Application of Effective Microorganisms on Growth Characteristics of Saffron in the Presence of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hasan Rivandi 1
  • Hamid Marvi 2
  • Matin Jami Moeini 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran
2 Instructor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran
3 Assistant professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of effective microorganism application method on saffron growth characteristics in the presence of chemical and organic fertilizers, a field experiment was conducted at Sheshtamad County during the growing season of 2013-2014. The experiment was carried out as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental factors included effective microorganisms (EM) application method as main plots (no application, soil application and foliar application of EM) and chemical and organic fertilizers application as subplots (no application, soil application of humic acid, soil application of 20, 20, 20+TE and soil application of humic acid + 20, 20, 20+TE). The results showed that soil and foliar application of EM had no significant effect on plant height, but it significantly increased corm number, corm yield, shoot dry weight and number of buds per corm. The average corm weight was reduced in response to soil and foliar application of EM. The highest corm number (220.33), corm yield (1023.33 g m-2) and shoot dry weight (43.02 g m-2) were obtained in soil application of EM treatment. The maximum number of buds per corm (8.68) and average corm weight (5.10 g) were observed in foliar application and no application of EM conditions, respectively. Application of 20, 20, 20+TE and combined application of humic acid and 20, 20, 20+TE increased corm number, corm yield, shoot dry weight and number of bud per corm compared to control and soil application of humic acid. Soil application of humic acid produced the highest average corm weight. Soil and foliar application of EM improved the response of saffron growth characteristics to organic and chemical fertilizers. According to the results, soil applications of EM and 20, 20, 20+TE are recommended to produce maximum corm yield in saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Humic acid
  • Bio-fertilizer
  • Corm yield
  • foliar application

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