بررسی برخی دلایل کاهش عملکرد زعفران در طی 30 سال اخیر (مقاله مروری)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 پژوهشکده زعفران، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

چکیده

زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) گیاهی چند ساله است که اساساً در نواحی خشک و نیمه‌خشک کشور رویش دارد. علیرغم سازگاری زعفران به این نواحی، ارزیابی روند تغییرات سطح زیر کشت زعفران در طی 30 سال اخیر نشان می‌دهد که کشت این محصول افزایش قابل‌توجهی یافته است؛ به‌طوری که زعفران هم‌اکنون در 21 استان کشور در سطحی معادل 88 هزار هکتار کشت می­شود. با این وجود، در بین سال­های 1360 تا 1393 عملکرد زعفران به ازای هر واحد سطح زیر کشت کاهش محسوسی یافته است. به‌طوری که از 1/5 کیلوگرم در سال 1360 به 2/3 کیلوگرم در سال 1393 رسیده است. کاهش عملکرد زعفران از جنبه­های متفاوتی اتفاق افتاده و اساساً متأثر از عواملی مانند سوء مدیریت در بخش کشاورزی، اقتصادی، فرآوری پس از برداشت و نیز خشک‌سالی‌های اخیر بوده است. در صورت عدم توجه به عوامل ذکرشده، عملکرد زعفران در سال­های آینده نیز ممکن است بیش از پیش کاهش یابد. کاهش عملکرد زعفران در طی 30 سال اخیر، لزوم ارائه یک برنامه جامع از سوی نهادهای مرتبط با زعفران شامل دانشگاه­ها، مؤسسات تحقیقاتی و نیز سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی را بیش از پیش مورد تأکید قرار می­دهد. همچنین جهت تدوین و توسعه این برنامه، اتخاذ سیاست­های دولت جهت برنامه­ریزی و تصویب بودجه موردنیاز ضروری به نظر می­رسد. در این مقاله مروری ابتدا سعی بر آن است تا مجموعه دلایل مرتبط با کاهش عملکرد زعفران مورد مطالعه قرار گیرد. ارائه راهکارهای لازم در ارتباط با این دلایل، هدف بعدی در مقاله می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Some reasons for saffron yield loss over the last 30 years period (Review Article)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Koocheki 1
  • Alireza Karbasi 2
  • Mohammad Seyyedi 3
1 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Saffron Institute, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
چکیده [English]

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a perennial plant which grows basically in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Despite saffron’s adaptation to these regions, the assessment of changes in cultivation area over the last 30 years reveals that cultivation of this crop has sharply increased. According to the available statistics, there are 21 provinces where saffron is cultivated on about 84,000 hectares of land. Nonetheless, saffron yield per unit area has aggressively fallen from 5.1 kg ha-1 in 1982 to 3.2 kg ha-1 in 2015. Saffron yield loss can be caused by several factors, such as mismanagement in agriculture section, economics and post-harvest processing as well as the recent droughts. Lack of attention to these factors could lead to further decline in saffron yield in the future. The saffron yield loss over the last 30 years is an alert for saffron-related institutions such as the universities, research centers and Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO) to pay more attention to this crop and prepare more comprehensive programs. In developing these programs, the importance of government policies for planning and approving enough budget is to be highlighted. In this review, first we focus on the reasons for saffron yield loss during the last 30 years and then we try to provide some solutions in relation to these reasons.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultivation area
  • Drought
  • Saffron production

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