تأثیر پیش‌تیمار بنة مادری با سطوح مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک و نیترات پتاسیم بر عملکرد گل، بنه و شاخص‌های فلورسانس کلروفیل زعفران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، گرایش فیزیولوژی گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکدة گیاهان ویژه منطقه، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

3 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پژوهشکدة گیاهان ویژه منطقه، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

4 مربی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

زعفران یکی از با ارزش­ترین گیاهان دارویی ایران است که در حوزة پراکنش خود تحت تأثیر برخی از تنش­های محیطی می­باشد. بنابراین، مصرف ترکیبات هورمونی و غذایی می­تواند ضمن کاهش آثار سوء تنش، موجبات افزایش رشد و عملکرد گیاه را فراهم سازد. به همین منظور آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار با هدف بررسی اثر غوطه­وریِ بنه­های مادری زعفران در سطوح مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک (5/0، 1 و 2 میلی مولار) و نیترات پتاسیم (250، 500، 1000 میلی­گرم بر لیتر) به همراه تیمار شاهد (آب مقطر به عنوان سطح صفر برای هر یک از ترکیبات مورد استفاده) روی برخی صفات مرتبط با رشد رویشی و زایشیِ زعفران در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی بیرجند در سال زراعی 1394 اجرا شد. صفات مورد بررسی شامل وزن­تر گل، وزن­تر گلبرگ، وزن­تر کلاله، طول کلاله، طول برگ، وزن و قطر بنة مادری و دختری، میزان کلروفیل کل و فلورسانس کلروفیل (با هدف بررسی تأثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی بر خسارت احتمالیِ ناشی از تنش گرمای تابستانه) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میزان Fv، Fv/Fm،F'v/F'm (به­ترتیب 117، 27/0 و 44/0)، کلروفیل کل (85/0 میکروگرم بر گرم وزن­تر)، وزن­ترگل، وزن­ترگلبرگ، وزن­ترکلاله (به ترتیب 9/36، 1/32 و 2/4 گرم در متر مربع)، طول کلاله و طول برگ (به­ترتیب 6/29 میلی­متر و 7/37 سانتی­متر) در تیمار غوطه­وریِ بنه در محلول 2 میلی­مولار اسید سالیسیلیک و بیشترین میزان F'm به مقدار 434 در سطح 5/0 میلی­مولار اسید سالیسیلیک به دست آمد. تیمار مصرف 1000 میلی­گرم بر لیتر نیترات پتاسیم نیز به ترتیب موجب افزایش 19 و 30 درصدیِ مقادیر قطر و وزن بنه دختری گردید. در مجموع، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که غوطه­وری بنه­های مادری زعفران در محلول‌های اسید سالیسیلیک و نیترات پتاسیم موجب بهبود رشد و عملکرد زعفران می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of saffron corm soaking in salicylic acid and potassium nitrate on vegetative and reproductive growth and its chlorophyll fluorescence indices

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mani Jabbari 1
  • Mehdi Khayyat 2
  • Hamid-reza Fallahi 3
  • Alireza samadzadeh 4
1 M.Sc. Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor Department of Horticultural Science, Regional Institute of Special Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Regional Institute of Special Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
4 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Saffron that is an important medicinal plant of Iran is influenced by several environmental stresses. Therefore, the consumption of appropriate hormonal and nutritional compounds can reduce the negative impacts of stresses on it and improve the growth and yield of the plant. For this purposes, an experiment was carried out based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications to study the effect of Salicylic acid (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM) and Potassium Nitrate (0, 250,500 and 1000 ml.g-1), in the research field station of the College of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, Iran, in the growing season of 2015. The indices evaluated included flower and corolla fresh weight, stigma weight and length, leaf length, corm and cormel weights and diameter, chlorophyll florescence parameters and total chlorophyll content. The results showed that the highest amounts of Fv, Fv/Fm, F'v/F'm (117, 0.27 and 0.44, respectively), total chlorophyll (0.85 µg.g fresh weight), flower and corolla fresh weight (36.9 and 32.1 g.m-2, respectively), stigma weight (4.2 g.m-2) and length (29.6 mm) and leaf length (37.7 cm) were obtained at 2 mM level of salicylic acid, while the highest F'm was recorded at 0.5 mM salicylic acid. In addition, pretreatment with 1000 mg.l-1 potassium nitrate increased the amounts of cormel weight and diameter by 30% and 19% compared with the control, respectively. Generally, the results of this experiment indicated an enhancement in saffron growth and yield, affected by corms soaking in salicylic acid and potassium nitrate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corm
  • Flower yield
  • quantum yield
  • Stigma
  • total chlorophyll
  • variable fluorescence

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