عنوان مقاله [English]
An experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at a field located in the Rivash town in the Khorasan Razavi province during the growing season 2013-2014 in order to compare and evaluate the effects of chemical fertilizer (Containing 12% N from Urea and nitrate sources, 8% P, 4%K and also Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Chelates), vermiwash and different levels of manure and vermicompost fertilizer with the use of biological EM (effective microorganisms) on the characteristics of corm in Saffron. Treatments included: 1.fertilizer chemical (containing 12% nitrogen from urea and nitrate, %8-P, 4% potassium and chelates together iron, zinc, manganese and copper) 2.Manure 40 t.ha-1, 3.manure 40 t.ha-1 + EM, 4.manure 80 t.ha-1, 5.manure 80 t.ha-1 + EM, 6.vermicompost 10 t.ha-1, 7.vermicompost 10 t.ha-1 + EM, 8.vermicompost 15 t.ha-1, 9.vermicompost 15 t.ha-1 + EM 10.vermicompost 20 t.ha-1 , 11.vermicompost 20 t.ha-1 + EM, 12.vermiwash, 13.vermiwash+ EM, 14.Manure 40 t.ha-1+ vermiwash, 15.Manure 40 t.ha-1 + vermiwash + EM, 16.Control (no fertilizer application). The results of analysis of variance showed a significant effect of treatments on all of the characteristics with the exception of the total number of saffron corms. The results indicated that the highest increase in total yield of corm (715 g.m-2), corm number more than 8 grams (57 corms.m-2), was obtained as a result of the use of chemical fertilizers and was equal to the combined application of Manure 40 t.ha-1+ vermiwash + EM. The orthogonal comparisons showed that the use of EM with vermicompost and manure versus using vermicompost and manure alone significantly reduced the traits of saffron.
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