بررسی تاثیر کودهای آلی و میکروارگانیسم‌های موثر((EM بر ویژگی‌های بنه‌های دختری زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، زراعت، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر کود شیمایی و کودهای آلی به‌همراه مصرف میکروارگانیسم‌های مؤثر (EM) بر خصوصیات بنه‌ی زعفران، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 93-1392 در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و 16 تیمار در شهر ریوش اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل 1-کود شیمایی (حاوی 12 درصد ازت از منبع اوره و نیترات، 8 درصد فسفر، 4 درصد پتاسیم و کلات‌های آهن، روی، منگنز و مس) 2- کود دامی 40 تن در هکتار 3- کود دامی 40 تن در هکتار+ EM 4- کود دامی 80 تن در هکتار 5- کود دامی 80 تن در هکتار+EM 6- ورمی‌کمپوست 10 تن در هکتار 7- ورمی‌کمپوست 10 تن در هکتار+EM  8- ورمی‌کمپوست 15 تن در هکتار 9- ورمی‌کمپوست 15 تن در هکتار+EM  10- ورمی‌کمپوست 20 تن در هکتار 11- ورمی‌کمپوست 20 تن در هکتار+EM  12- ورمی‌واش 13- ورمی‌واش+‌EM 14- کود دامی 40 تن در هکتار+ورمی‌واش 15- کود دامی 40 تن در هکتار+ ورمی‌واش+EM  و 16- شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) بود.نتایج تجزیه واریانس حاکی از اثرات معنی‌دار تیمارهای کودی بر صفات مورد بررسی زعفران به استثنای تعداد کل بنه‌های دختری بود.بر اساس نتایج آزمایش، بیش‌ترین افزایش در عملکرد کل بنه‌های دختری (715 گرم در مترمربع)، تعداد بنه‌های دختری بیش‌تر از 8 گرم (57 بنه در مترمربع)، در نتیجه‌ی کاربرد کود شیمیایی حاصل شد که این تأثیر با اثر کود دامی 40 تن در هکتار+ورمی‌واش+EM برابری کرد. بر اساس نتایج مقایسات گروهی کاربرد EM همراه با ورمی‌کمپوست و کود دامی نسبت به مصرف ورمی‌کمپوست و کود دامی به تنهایی به‌طور معنی‌داری باعث کاهش صفات مورد بررسی زعفران شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Organic Fertilizers and Effective Microorganisms (EM) on Replacement Corm Criteria of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeideh Madahi 1
  • mahdi Parsa 2
  • Morteza Goldani 3
  • Mohammad Kafi 4
1 M.Sc. Student of Agro Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Associate Professor Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
4 Professor Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

An experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at a field located in the Rivash town in the Khorasan Razavi province during the growing season 2013-2014 in order to compare and evaluate the effects of chemical fertilizer (Containing 12% N from Urea and nitrate sources, 8% P, 4%K and also Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Chelates), vermiwash and different levels of manure and vermicompost fertilizer with the use of biological EM (effective microorganisms) on the characteristics of corm in Saffron. Treatments included: 1.fertilizer chemical (containing 12% nitrogen from urea and nitrate, %8-P, 4% potassium and chelates together iron, zinc, manganese and copper) 2.Manure 40 t.ha-1, 3.manure 40 t.ha-1 + EM, 4.manure 80 t.ha-1, 5.manure 80 t.ha-1 + EM, 6.vermicompost 10 t.ha-1, 7.vermicompost 10 t.ha-1 + EM, 8.vermicompost 15 t.ha-1, 9.vermicompost 15 t.ha-1 + EM 10.vermicompost 20 t.ha-1 , 11.vermicompost 20 t.ha-1  + EM, 12.vermiwash, 13.vermiwash+ EM, 14.Manure 40 t.ha-1+ vermiwash, 15.Manure 40 t.ha-1 + vermiwash + EM, 16.Control (no fertilizer application). The results of analysis of variance showed a significant effect of treatments on all of the characteristics with the exception of the total number of saffron corms. The results indicated that the highest increase in total yield of corm (715 g.m-2), corm number more than 8 grams (57 corms.m-2), was obtained as a result of the use of chemical fertilizers and was equal to  the combined application of Manure 40 t.ha-1+ vermiwash + EM. The orthogonal comparisons showed that the use of EM with vermicompost and manure versus using vermicompost and manure alone significantly reduced the traits of saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological fertilizer
  • Saffron stigma
  • Vermicompost
  • Vermiwash

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