اثرات دگر آسیبی عصاره اندام‌های مختلف گیاه زعفران بر رشد و جوانه‌زنی علف های هرز جوموشی (.Hordeum murinum L) و خاکشیر (.Descurainia sophia L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، مهندسی تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

2 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

3 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و گیاهان دارویی و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

4 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر دگرآسیبی اندام­های زعفران بر رشد و جوانه‌زنی دو گونه علف هرز جوموشی و خاکشیر آزمایشی در دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربت حیدریه در سال 1394 انجام شد. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شد.  تیمارها شامل عصاره اندام­های زعفران در سه سطح برگ، بنه و ترکیب برگ و بنه و غلظت­های مختلف هر عصاره در شش سطح (صفر، 1، 5/2، 5، 10 و 20 درصد) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که عصاره زعفران دارای آثار منفی بر رشد و پارامترهای جوانه‌زنی شامل طول و وزن ریشه، ساقه و گیاه­چه، سرعت جوانه‌زنی، درصد جوانه‌زنی، شاخص بنیه بذر و تعداد بذر نرمال در هر دو گونه علف هرز بود. بیشترین سرعت جوانه‌زنی در علف هرز جوموشی (48/10) در کاربرد 5/2 درصد عصاره برگ و بنه به دست آمد. همچنین در این علف هرز بالاترین شاخص بنیه بذر با میانگین 75/21 در کاربرد 5/2 درصد عصاره برگ و کمترین آن با میانگین 75/10 در کاربرد 20 درصد عصاره برگ و بنه به دست آمد. در علف هرز خاکشیر بالاترین شاخص بنیه بذر (21) و تعداد بذر نرمال (75/15) به ترتیب در غلظت یک درصد عصاره برگ و بنه و غلظت 5/2 درصد عصاره بنه و کمترین آن‌ها در 20 درصد عصاره برگ و بنه مشاهده شد. کاربرد عصاره برگ و بنه نسبت به عصاره برگ و بنه به‌صورت جدا به‌طور معنی‌داری باعث کاهش صفات جوانه‌زنی شد. به‌طورکلی نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از عصاره زعفران در غلظت­های 10 و 20 درصد به‌طور مؤثری سبب کاهش رشد و نمو علف­های هرز جوموشی و خاکشیر در مرحله جوانه‌زنی می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Allopathic Effects of Organs’ Extracts of Saffron Plant on the Growth and Germination of Hordeum Murinum L. and Descurainia sophia L.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Alireza Musavi 1
  • Hassan Feizi 2
  • Ahmad Ahmadian 3
  • Ebrahim Izadi Darbandi 4
1 MSc Student, Plant production department, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of medicinal plants, Faculty of Agriculture and Saffron Institute, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In order to examine the allopathic effects of saffron organs on the growth and germination of two species of Hordeum murinum L. and Descurainia sophia L. weeds, an experiment was done in the school of agriculture of the University of Torbat Haydarieh, Iran. The experiment was done as factorial in a completely randomized design with four replications with different levels of organs (leaf, corm and a combination of leaf and corm) and extract concentration (zero, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 percent). The results indicated that saffron extract has negative effects on growth and germination parameters such as the length and weight of the root, stem and seedlings, the speed of germination, the percentage of germination, the seed vigor index and the number of normal seeds in both species of weeds. The highest germination rate was shown by Hordeum murinum (10.48) that was obtained in the 2.5 percent application in the leaf and corm extractions. In addition, in this weed the highest seed vigor index (21.75) was seen in the application of 2.5 percent of leaf extraction and the lowest seed vigor index was obtained (10.75) in the 20 percent application of leaf and corm extractions. In the D. sophia L. weed the highest seed vigor index was 21 and the number of normal seeds was 15.75, respectively, in the one percent concentration of leaf and corm and the 2.5 percent concentration in the corm extraction and its lowest value was seen in the 20 percent of leaf and corm extraction. The application of leaf and corm combination extraction in comparison with leaf and root separately, significantly lead to a reduction of the germination traits. On the whole, its seems that using the saffron extracts in the concentrations of 10 and 20 percent significantly affect the growth and development of Hordeum murinum and Descurainia sophia weeds negatively in the germination stage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Allelopathy
  • medicinal plants
  • Seed vigor index
  • Corm
  • Germination percentage

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