اثر کاربرد کمپوست و ترکیب کمپوست و بیوچار بر جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک بستر کاشت و میزان ظهور و رشد اولیه گیاهچه اکوتیپ‌های زعفران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، انجمن پژوهشگران جوان، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان.

2 دانشیار زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان.

چکیده

ظهور جوانه زعفران به فشردگی و ساختمان خاک حساس است. جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک به عنوان مهم­ترین شاخص کیفیت فیزیکی خاک معرفی می­شود. بر این اساس این آزمایش با هدف بررسی اثر کاربرد کمپوست و کمپوست-بیوچار در بستر کاشت بر میزان ظهور و رشد اولیه گیاهچه اکوتیپ­های زعفران و ارتباط آن با جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل بسترهای کاشت (بدون افزودن ماده آلی (شاهد)، اختلاط 20 تن کمپوست در هکتار و اختلاط 10 تن کمپوست+ 8 تن بیوچار (مواد سلولزی درختان جنگلی) در هکتار) و اکوتیپ­های مختلف زعفران (بجستان، استهبان، فردوس، گناباد، نطنز، قائن، سرایان، تربت حیدریه و زرند) بودند. داده­های حاصل از آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی بین بسترهای کشت مورد تجزیه مرکب قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد کمپوست و کمپوست-بیوچار، پارامترهای ظهور جوانه اصلی و جوانه­های فرعی و همچنین پارامترهای رشد برگ را نسبت به شاهد بهبود داد. در بین اکوتیپ­ها زرند، تربت حیدریه و استهبان نسبت به سایر اکوتیپ­ها پاسخ متفاوتی از نظر درصد و سرعت ظهور جوانه اصلی به نوع بستر کاشت نشان دادند. تنوع قابل توجهی در بین اکوتیپ­ها از نظر تمام پارامترهای مورد مطالعه مشاهده شد که بیانگر سازگاری اکوتیپ­ها به شرایط اقلیمی منشأ بنه بود. به­طور کلی اکوتیپ­های بجستان، فردوس و قائن از نظر سطح و وزن خشک برگ برتری نشان دادند. کمپوست و کمپوست-بیوچار به­طور معنی­داری (12 درصد) موجب کاهش جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک نسبت به شاهد شدند. تجزیه رگرسیون خطی نشان داد بین جرم مخصوص ظاهری و پارامترهای مورد بررسی ارتباط منفی وجود داشت و کاهش معنی­داری در تمام پارامترهای مورد بررسی با افزایش جرم مخصوص ظاهری مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of compost and combination of compost and biochar application in soil bulk density of planting bed, seedling emergence rate and early growth of saffron ecotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jalal Ghanbari 1
  • Gholamreza Khajoei-Nejad 2
1 Ph.D Student of Agronomy, Young Researcher Society, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Agronomy, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Emergence of saffron buds is sensitive to soil compaction and structure. Soil bulk density is introduced as the most important index of soil physical quality. Accordingly, this study was done to evaluate the effect of compost and compost-biochar in planting bed on the emergence and early seedling growth of saffron ecotypes and its relationship to soil bulk density. Experimental treatments consisted of planting beds (without any organic amendment (control), incorporation of 20 t.ha-1 compost and 10 t.ha-1 compost+ 8 t.ha-1 biochar (cellulosic material of hardwood)) and different ecotypes of saffron (Bajestan, Estahban, Ferdows, Gonabad, Natanz, Qaen, Sarayan, Torbate-Heydarieh and Zarand). Data obtained from experiment were subjected to combined analysis of variance among planting beds based on randomized complete block design. The results showed that application of compost and compost+biochar, improved emergence of the main and lateral buds as well as leaf growth parameters compared to the control. Zarand, Torbate-Heydarieh and Estahban ecotypes responded differently to the planting bed types in terms of emergence percent and rate of main bud compared to other ecotypes. Considerable variation was observed among the ecotypes in terms of all studied parameters, which indicated the adaptability of ecotypes to climatic conditions of corm provenance. Generally, the Bajestan, Ferdows and Qaen ecotypes showed superiority in terms of leaf area and dry weight. Compost and compost-biochar significantly (12%) reduced the soil bulk density compared to the control. Linear regression analysis indicated that there was a negative relationship between soil bulk density and the studied parameters, and significant decrease in all parameters was observed with increasing of soil bulk density.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Emergence rate
  • Organic amendments
  • Planting bed
  • Saffron seedling emergence
  • Soil compaction

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