فراتحلیل پژوهش‌های زراعی زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) با تاکید بر مصرف کود‌های آلی و عملیات زراعی در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، پردیس بین الملل، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

چکیده

پژوهش‌های زراعی زعفران در رابطه با تأثیر کودهای آلی (دامی، زیستی و کمپوست) و عملیات زراعی (تراکم، روش، تاریخ و عمق کاشت) سابقه‌ای طولانی در ایران دارد. به دلیل پراکندگی و تفاوت‏های موجود در نتایج آزمایش‌های مختلف، در این بررسی از رهیافت فرا تحلیل استفاده شد. تعداد 47 مطالعه عملیات زراعی و 44 مطالعه کود‌های آلی از میان 202 مطالعه انتخاب و تجزیه فراتحلیلی شدند. در مطالعات کود‌های آلی، برتری کودهای دامی (گاوی) با تأثیر بر افزایش وزن خشک زعفران (493/1g=) با اطمینان 95% نسبت به سایر کودها مشاهده شد. مقادیر، 40 تا 50 تن در هکتار کودگاوی، 20 تا 30 تن در هکتار کمپوست که به­صورت ترکیب با کود‌های زیستی (نیتروکسین همراه با باکتری تثبیت‌کننده ازت) استفاده شده ­بودند، مؤثرتر از مقادیر بالاتر هر یک از این کود‌ها به تنهایی بوده است. مطالعات عملیات زراعی، برتری تراکم کاشت با تأثیر بر افزایش تعداد گل در هکتار را نشان داد. تراکم‌های مطلوب 50 تا 100 بنه در مترمربع، میانگین وزن مطلوب هر بنه 10 تا 20 گرم و متوسط وزن بنه مصرفی 9 تا 12 تن بنه در هکتار به‌دست آمد. روش کشت مناسب، روش ردیفی-کپه‌ای (فاصله بین ردیف 20 سانتی­متر و روی ردیف 10 سانتی­متر) و بهترین تاریخ‌های کاشت، اواخر اردیبهشت تا دهه اول خرداد و مناسب­ترین عمق کاشت، عمق 15 تا 20 سانتی‌متر بوده است. هدف از انجام این فرا تحلیل، درک بهتر مدیریت زراعی و کودی این محصول و ارائه بهترین مدیریت ممکن می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Meta-analysis of Saffron (.Crocus sativus L) Agronomical Researches, with an Emphasis on the Consumption of Organic Fertilizers and Agronomical Practices in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohamad mokhtari 1
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
  • Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Crop Ecology, international campus, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Studies that investigated the impact of organic fertilizers (manure, compost and biological fertilizers) and agronomical practices (density, method, date and depth of planting) on saffron yield have a long history in Iran. Due to the distribution and inconsistency in the results obtained from different studies, a meta-analytic approach was used in the current study. for this aim, 47 organic fertilizers studies and 44 agronomical practices studies were selected from 202 gathered studies and analyzed. The criteria for the selection of studies were the adequacy of data for the present meta-analysis. Among the individual fertilizer studies, manure fertilizer had the highest impact on saffron dry weight (g= 1.493) at 95% confidence interval. Average amount, 40 to 50ton/ha of cow manure, 20 to 30ton/ha of compost that is used as a combination with Biofertilizer (Nitroxin with Nitrogen-fixing bacteria) were more effective than higher amounts of these fertilizers will be alone. Among the agronomical practices studies, plant density had the highest and depth of planting had the lowest effect size on economical yield and number of flower. The optimal density for maximum yield was 50-100 corm per (m2), optimal consumed weight average 9-12 ton per hectare observed, optimal weight of any corm was 10-20 (g). Among planting methods, row-mass method was the best optimal (inter-planting was 20 cm and intra-planting 10 cm). The best planting dates was the end of May and the first decade of Jun. Optimal planting depth was 15-20cm. Homogeneity between organic fertilizers studies was accepted and the homogeneity between agronomical practices except depth of planting studies was accepted. This heterogeneity was caused by factors such as age of farms and different regions that had the most impact on heterogeneity and effect size. The present meta-analysis aims to provide a better understanding of agronomical and fertilizers management and offer the best possible management for this crop.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biofertilizer
  • Compost
  • Manure fertilizers

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