عنوان مقاله [English]
This study is aimed at investigating the effect of using humic, bio and nano fertilizers and levels of nitrogen fertilizers in flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) at the University of Torbat Heydarieh research farm located in Zaveh in 2014-2015. Treatments consisted of three levels of nitrogen application and use of fertilizer sources as the main factor, including Bioumik, Super Humic, combined Super Humic and Bioumik, Humi Ful, Nitrokara and no fertilizer as sub plots as split plot based on randomized complete block design with 18 treatments and three replications. Analysis of data showed that the effect of year and fertilizer sources on all traits measured was significant. The effect of nitrogen treatments was significant (at 1%) except on number of flowers, dry style, mean dry weight stigma, and mean dry weight. Fertilizer sources increased all measured traits significantly. Application of Biomic increased petals and sepals dry weight (736.34 g/m2) by 46.78% in comparison with the control (464.19 g/m2). The highest dry weight stigma (524.2 g/m2) was seen in Super Humic + Bioumik treatment compared to the control group (443.1 g/m2). Super Humic treatment increased dry weight stigma by 86.49% relative to control. It seems that the use of humic, bio and nano fertilizers has a good effect on saffron performance.
. Mahmoodi, S., Behdani, M., and Sayari, M. 2013. The effect of corm weight and use of fertilizers on features and cream saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus L.). The second National Congress and conventional organic agriculture. (In Persian).
Amiri, M. 2008. Impact of animal manures and chemical fertilizers on yield components of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of American-Eurasian Science 4: 274-279.
Behdani, M. 2005. Ecological zoning and monitoring fluctuations in Khorasan saffron yield. Ph.D thesis of Agriculture (Crop Ecology), Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (In Persian).
Cui, H., Sun, C., Liu, Q., Jiang, J., and Gu, W. 2006. Applications of Nanotechnology in Agrochemical Formulation, Perspectives, Challenges and Strategies. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of agricultural sciences, Beijing, China, pp: 1-6.
Donyanavard, P., Kamgar Haghighi, A., Sepaskhah, A., Karimian, N., and Zand Parsa, SH. 2014. The different levels of irrigation water, manure and urea on the growth and yield of saffron. The third national conference on the latest achievements of scientific and research saffron, University of Torbat Heydarieh. (In Persian).
FAO, 2014. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. http://www.faostat.fao.org.
Ghavi, M., Sadr Abadi Haghighi, R., Bakhsh Kalarestaghi, K., and Naghibi, M. 2012. The effects of biological and chemical fertilizers sprayed on performance and features corms flower (Crocus sativus L.). National Conference on Environment and Plant Production. (In Persian).
Gresta, F., Lombardo, G.M., Siracusa, L., and Ruberto, G. 2008. Effect of mother corm dimension and sowing time on stigma yield, daughter corms and qualitative aspects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in a Mediterranean environment. Journal of Food Science and Agriculture 88: 1144-1150.
Hemati Kakhki, A., and Hosseini, M. 2003. A Review on 15 Years on Research on Saffron in Khorasan. Institute of Research and Development of Technology. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications. 114p. (In Persian).
Hosseini, M. 1997. The Effect of Foliar Feeding on Increasing the Yield of Saffron. Publication Research Organization for Science and Technology, Institute of Khorasan. (In Persian).
Hun, H.S., Supanjani., Lee, K.D. 2006. Effect of co-inoculation with phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria on mineral uptake and growth of pepper and cucumber. Plant Soil Environment 52 (4): 332-338.
Jahan M., and Jahani, M. 2007. The effects of chemical and organic fertilizers on saffron flowering. Second International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology, April 2007.
Khorramdel, S., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Khorasani, R. 2010. Effect of different crop management systems on net primary productivity and relative carbon allocation coefficients for corn (Zea mays L.). Journal of Agroecology 2 (4): 667-680. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A. 2004. Indigenous knowledge in agriculture with particular reference to saffron production in Iran. Acta horticulturae 650: 175-182. (In Persian).
Koocheki, A., Jahani, M., Tabrizi, L., and Mohammad abadi, A. 2011. Evaluate the effectiveness of biological and chemical fertilizers and plant density on yield and characteristics of saffron corm flower (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of soil and water (Agricultural Science and Technology) 25 (1): 196-206. (In Persian).
Koocheki, A., Najib nia, S., and Lellah gani, B. 2009. Evaluating the performance of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) intercropping with cereals, pulses and medicinal herbs. Iran Agricultural Research 7: 175-184. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Soltani, A., and Azizi, M. 1997. Plant Ecophysiology. The University of Mashhad. 272p.
Kumar, R., Singh, V., Devi, K., Sharma, M., Singh, M.K., and Ahuja, P.S. 2009. State of the art of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) agronomy: A comprehensive review. Food Review International 25: 44-85.
Lai, R. 2007. Soil Science in the Era of Hydrogen Economy and 10 Billion People. the Ohio State University, USA, pp: 1-9.
Ministry of Agriculture-Jahad. 2016. Agricultural Statistics, (Vol. 2). Islamic Republic of Iran, Ministry of Agriculture-Jahad, Press. (In Persian).
Mohammad Poor, J., Ghodsi, M., Esmi, R., Shariatmadari, Z., Adib, M., and Jahedi Poor, S. 2013. Effects of different irrigation and fertilizers on some morphological traits and yield of saffron. Second National Conference on the latest achievements of scientific and research saffron, University of Torbat Heydarieh. (In Persian).
Monreal, C.M. 2010. Nanofertilizers for increased N and P use efficiencies by crops. In summary of information currently provided to MRI concerning applications for round 5 of the Ontario research fund-research excellence program, p: 12-13.
Naderi Darbaghshahi, M.R., Khajebashi, S.M., Banitabar, S.A., and Dehdashti, S.M. 2009. Effects of planting method, density and depth on yield and production period of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Isfahan region. Seed Plant Journal 24: 643-657. (In Persian with English Summary).
Omidi, H., Naghdi abadi, H., Golzad, A., Torabi, H., and Fotokian, M. 2009. Chemical and biological nitrogen fertilizer effect on yield and quality of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants 8 (2): 99-109. (In Persian with English Summary).
Rahimi daghi, S., mahmodi, S., bakhshi, M., and Sayari, M. 2013. Assessment shows consumption of fertilizer, pesticides and water and the impact of them on the performance of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the city of Birjand and Kashmar. The first national congress on medicinal plants and sustainable agriculture, Faculty of Mofateh martyr. (In Persian).
Ramezani, A. 2000. Effect of corm weight on saffron yield in Neyshabur climate. Msc dissertation, faculty of agriculture, the University of Tarbiat modarres Tehran, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary).
Ranjith, N.K., Sasikala, C., and Ramana, C.V. 2007. Catabolism of l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine by Rhodobacter sphaeroides OU5 occurs through 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Research Microbiology 158: 506-511.
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Amiri, P., and Ehyayi, H. 2014. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and different amounts of mushroom compost on flower yield and properties of saffron corms (Crocus sativus L.) in an organic farming system. Journal of Horticultural Science (Agricultural Science and Technology) 28 (2): 208-199. (In Persian with English Summary).
Sharif, M., Khattak, R.A., and Sarir, M.S. 2002. Effect of different levels of lignitic coal drived humic acid on growth of maize plants. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 33: 3567-3580.
Sidari, M., Atina, E., Francioso, O., Tugnoli, V., and Nardi, S. 2006. Biological activity of humic substances is related to their chemical structure. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71: 75-85.
Teimori, S., Behdani, M.A., Ghaderi, M.G., and Sadeghi, B. 2013. Investigation on the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on morphological and agronomic of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corm criteria. Journal of Saffron Research 1 (1): 36-47. (In Persian with English Summary).
Unal, M., and Cavusoglu, A. 2005. The effect of various nitrogen fertilizers on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield. Akdeniz Univ. Ziraaf Fak. Dergisi 18 (2): 257-260.