بررسی اثر چند روش‏ فیزیکی و زراعی بر جمعیت کنه (Rhizoglyphus robini) و عملکرد کلاله زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

2 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران

3 کارشناس ارشد، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

4 کارشناس مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

در این آزمایش، تأثیر آفتاب‏دهی با پلاستیک شفاف، زمان کاشت و اولین آبیاری پس از کاشت بر جمعیت کنه (Rhizoglyphus robini) و عملکرد کلاله زعفران به‌صورت کرت‏های خردشده و در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار طی سال‏های 1390 تا 1394 در شهرستان گناباد مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. فاکتور‏های اصلی شامل آفتاب‏دهی و عدم آفتاب‏دهی خاک قبل از کاشت بودند که در کرت‏های اصلی قرار گرفتند. هفت روش مدیریت زراعی شامل 1- کاشت زعفران در شهریور ماه بدون آبیاری پس از کاشت، 2- کاشت زعفران در شهریور ماه همراه با آبیاری بلافاصله پس از کاشت، 3- کاشت زعفران در خرداد ماه سال بعد بدون آبیاری پس از کاشت، 4- کاشت زعفران در خرداد ماه سال بعد همراه با آبیاری بلافاصله پس از کاشت، 5- کاشت زعفران در خرداد ماه سال بعد و آبیاری آن در مرداد ماه، 6- کاشت زعفران در شهریور ماه سال بعد بدون آبیاری پس از کاشت و 7- کاشت زعفران در شهریور ماه سال بعد همراه با آبیاری بلافاصله پس از کاشت در کرت‏های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد آفتاب‏دهی به‌طورکلی و فارغ از بسته مدیریت اعمال ‌شده باعث کاهش جمعیت کنه و افزایش عملکرد کلاله زعفران شد. روش زراعی 4 یعنی آبیاری بلافاصله پس از کاشت زعفران در خرداد موجب شد جمعیت کنه افزایش یابد و در نتیجه باعث کاهش عملکرد کلاله زعفران شد. درحالی‌که روش 2 (کاشت در شهریور و آبیاری آن بلافاصله بعد از کاشت) جمعیت کنه را کاهش و عملکرد را افزایش داد. عملکرد زعفران در تاریخ کشت‌های خرداد (روش‏های 3، 4 و 5) نسبت به شهریور (روش‏های 1، 2، 6 و 7) بیشتر بود. کمترین جمعیت کنه و بیشترین عملکرد زعفران به تیمار آفتاب‏دهی و روش زراعی 3 (کاشت زعفران در خرداد سال بعد و بدون آبیاری بعد از کاشت) تعلق گرفت به‌طوری‌که در این تیمار نسبت به بدترین تیمار (بدون آفتاب‏دهی، روش 1)، جمعیت کنه را 94 درصد کاهش و در نتیجه عملکرد زعفران را 53/348 درصد افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigting the effects of some physical and cultural methods on the population of bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini) and yield of saffron (.Crocus sativus L)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Rahimi 1
  • Ehssan Torabi 2
  • Hossien Rahimi 3
  • Mahdi Araghi 4
  • Mohammad Roshnavandi 4
1 Assistant Professor, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Training Center of Khorassan Razavi
2 PhD student, Department of Plant Protection, University of Tehran
3 MSc Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Training Center of Khorassan Razavi
4 BSc Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Training Center of Khorassan Razavi
چکیده [English]

In this research, the effects of solarization by transparent plastics, planting time and the first irrigation after planting on the populations of saffron bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini) and yield (Crocus sativus L.) were investigated. A split plot experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replicates from 2011 to 2015 in Gonabad, Khorasan Razavi province. Solarization and non-solarization factors were placed in the main plots. Seven crop managing packages including 1- planting without irrigation in September, 2- irrigation immediately after planting in September, 3- planting without irrigation in June, 4- irrigation immediately after planting in June, 5- planting in June and irrigation in August, 6- planting without irrigation in September of the next year, and 7- irrigation immediately after planting in September of the next year were placed in sub-plots. The results showed that regardless of management package, solarization suppressed the mite populations and increased saffron yield. Package 4, Irrigation immediately after planting on June, increased the mite populations and decreased saffron yields. However, package 2, irrigation on September, reduces the mite populations and increases saffron yield. Planting Saffron in June (packages 3, 4, and 5) resulted in more yield compared to Planting at September (packages 1, 2, 6, and 7). The lowest reduction in the population of mites (94%) and the highest yield (77%) were achieved through solarization and by implementing package 3, treatment and cultivation in June of the next year with no irrigation after planting.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • irrigation
  • Solarization
  • Transparence
  • planting date
  • Mite

Ahmadian Yazdi, A. 2002. The disinfects by soil solarization and common methods for Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp). Final Report Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan Razavi. 33 p. (In Persian).

Anonymous. 2013. Statistical Yearbook of Agriculture 2013. Agriculture Organization of Khorasan Razavi province. www. Koaj.ir, (In Persian).

Anonymous. 2014. Statistical Yearbook of Agriculture 2014. Agriculture Organization of Khorasan Razavi province. www. Koaj.ir, (In Persian).

Anonymous. 2015 (a). Statistical Yearbook of Agriculture 2015. Agriculture Organization of Khorasan Razavi province. www. Koaj.ir, (In Persian).

Anonymous. 2015 (b). Meteorological Data Unit Gonabad City. (In Persian).

Gerson, U., and Smiley, R.L. 1990.Acarine Biocontrol Agents. An illustrated key and manual. Chapman and Hall, London, 174 p.

Ghobadi, F., Ghorbani Javid, M., and Sorooshzadeh, A. 2015. Effects of planting date and corm size on flower yield and physiological traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under Varamin plain climatic conditions. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 2 (4): 265-276. (In Persian with English Summary).

Katan, J. 1992. Soil solarization research as a model for the development of new methods of disease control. Phytoparasitica 20: 133-135.

Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P. Fallahi, J., and Aghvany Shajari, M. 2011. The effects of planting date and irrigation of spring, summer and fall with the use of cover crops on forage yield of saffron. The first national conference on strategies to achieve sustainable agriculture, Ahvaz, Khuzestan province PNU. http://www.civilica.com/Paper-CAAMSA01-CAAMSA01_127.html. (In Persian with English Summary).

Koocheki, A.R., Rezvani-Moghaddam, P., and Fallahi, H.R. 2015. Effects of planting dates, irrigation management and cover crops on growth and yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L). Agroecology. (Accepted for Publication). (In Persian with English Summary).

Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Fallahi, H.R., and Aghhavani Shajari, M. 2016. The study of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) replacement corms growth in response to planting date, irrigation management and companion crops. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 4 (1): 3-18.

Mollafilabi, A., and Shoorideh, H. 2009. The new method of saffron production. 4th National Festival of Saffron, 27-28 October 2009.

Mauromicale, G., Lo Mo, A., and Longo, A.M.G. 2010. Improved efficiency of soil solarization for growth and yield of greenhouse tomatoes. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 30: 753–761. Available online at: www.agronomy-journal.org

Mousavi, M., and Taymoory, F. 1992. Evaluate the effects of the sollar heat and the plastic coating on weed populations and soil nematodes in vegetable fields. The first seminar vegetable research. Karaj, pp. 99-98, (In Persian).

Pazoki, A., Karaminejad, M., and Foladi Targhi, A. 2011. Effects of planting dates and genotypes on yield of Saffron. Crop Physiology Journal 2 (8): 3-28. (In Persian with English Summary).

Ono, M., Ando, S., and Morita, S. 1993. Control of the bulb mites R. robini Claparede and Caloglyphus spp. On Chinese chive Allium tuberosum by solar heating. Proceedings of the Association of Plant Protection of Kyushu 39: 117-118.

Rahimi, H., and Kamali, K. 1993. Laboratory studies on biology of bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Acaridae) and its damages on saffron corm in Gonabad and Qaen. The Scientific Journal of Agriculture 16: 53-63. (In Persian with English Summary).

Rahimi, H., and Mokhtarian, A., Bazoobandi, M., Rahimi, H., Kiani, M., and Behdad, M. 2008. Effects of sowing depth and summer irrigation on Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Acaridae) population in Gonabad. Applied Entomology and phytopathplogy 76 (1): 1-12. (In Persian with English Summary).

Rahimi, H., Dadmand, M., Torabi, E., Rahimi, H., Torabi H., and Araghi, M. 2013. Investigating the effects of soil solarization on saffron field against bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini). Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture) 36 (2): 1-15. (In Persian with English Summary).

Sadeghi, B., Aghamiri, A., and Negari, A. 2003. Adopting summer irrigation to increase saffron yield. Proceeding 3rd National Saffron Congress. Mashhad, Iran. pp. 171-172. (In Persian).