تأثیر کود آلی و شیمیایی بر رشد و گلدهی گیاه زعفران در دو رژیم آبیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه پژوهشی زعفران، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشیار گروه پژوهشی زعفران، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

برهم­کنش مدیریت آبیاری و تغذیه­ عامل مهمی در رشد بنه و گلدهی زعفران است. در خصوص مدیریت آبیاری زعفران نیز برخی معتقدند که مصرف آب بیش از مقادیر رایج در زراعت این گیاه می­تواند سودمند باشد. بر این اساس، در آزمایشی اثرات رژیم آبیاری [فواصل آبیاری دو و چهار هفته (بدون لحاظ کردن میزان بارندگی) به­ترتیب معادل با مصرف 3600 (تیمار آبیاری رایج در مناطق نیمه­خشک) و 7200 (تیمار پُرآبیاری) مترمکعب در هکتار در طی فصل رشد] و مصرف کودهای آلی (30 تن در هکتار کود گاوی بر اساس نتایج آنالیز خاک) و شیمیایی (220، 150 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به ترتیب از کودهای اوره، سوپر فسفات تریپل و سولفات پتاسیم بر اساس توصیة کودی حاصل از نتایج آنالیز خاک) به همراه تیمار شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) بر برخی شاخص­های فیزیولوژیکی رشد، تولید بنه و گل در این گیاه بررسی شد. این آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل بر مبنای طرح بلوک­ کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال­ زراعی 95-1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی سرایان وابسته به دانشگاه بیرجند اجرا شد. شاخص­های رشد رویشی در طی چرخة اول رشد گیاه از پاییز 1394 تا اواسط بهار 1395 تعیین شد و صفات مرتبط با گلدهی نیز در پاییز 1395 ارزیابی گردید. زیست­توده کل گیاه در طی اولین فصل رشد روندی افزایشی داشت و در دو ماه پایانی رشد در هر دو رژیم آبیاری در شرایط استفاده از کود آلی قبل از کاشت گیاه، بیش از سایر تیمارها بود. سرعت رشد گیاه در اوایل (90 روز اول رشد)، اواسط (روزهای 90 تا 150 رشد) و اواخر (روزهای 150 تا 180 رشد) دوره رشد زعفران به ترتیب کند (کمتر از 9/3 گرم در مترمربع زمین در روز)، سریع (9/3 تا 12 گرم در مترمربع زمین در روز) و حدواسط (حدود 5/5 گرم در مترمربع زمین در روز) بود و بیشترین مقدار آن با حدود 12 گرم در مترمربع زمین در روز، در شرایط مصرف کود آلی و 145 روز پس از اولین آبیاری پاییزه حاصل شد. نسبت وزن برگ (وزن برگ به وزن کل گیاه شامل برگ، غلاف و بنه) نیز در تمامی تیمارها از حدود دو ماه پس از اولین آبیاری پاییزه تا انتهای فصل رشد روندی کاهشی داشت و در شرایط مصرف منابع تغذیه­ای مقادیر نسبتاً بیشتری را نشان داد. مصرف کود آلی به میزان 15 درصد تعداد بنه و 13 درصد وزن کل بنه­های دختری موجود در هر بوته را نسبت به تیمار عدم مصرف کود افزایش داد. بیشترین متوسط وزن هر بنه با 4/6 گرم در تیمار آبیاری با فواصل دو هفته و مصرف کود آلی حاصل شد. بیشترین تعداد گل (98 گل در مترمربع)، عملکرد گل (3/24 گرم در مترمربع)، عملکرد کلاله + خامه (56/0 گرم در مترمربع) و گلبرگ خشک (7/3 گرم در مترمربع) در تیمار مصرف کود گاوی در دور آبیاری چهار هفته به دست آمد. در تیمارهای بدون کود و مصرف کود آلی، بیشترین عملکرد گل و کلاله در دور آبیاری چهار هفته و در تیمار مصرف کود شیمیایی در دور آبیاری دو هفته مشاهده شد؛ بنابراین، به نظر می­رسد حداقل در سال اول کاشت که تراکم گیاهی و سطح تعرق­کنندة زعفران کم می­باشد، مصرف 3600 مترمکعب آب در هر هکتار در طی فصل رشد همراه با مصرف کود آلی سودمند باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of organic and chemical fertilization on growth and flowering of saffron under two irrigation regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid-reza Fallahi 1
  • Sohrab Mahmoodi 2
1 Assistant Professor of Saffron Research Group, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Saffron Research Group, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The combined effect of water and nutrient availability is one of the most important factors in corm growth and flowering of saffron. In addition, it seems that applying water in amounts more than conventional amounts in semi-arid areas can be more useful in saffron cultivation. Accordingly, the effects of irrigation regimes [two and four weeks intervals equal to application of 3600 (conventional irrigation treatment) and 7200 m3.ha-1 (extensive-irrigation treatment) during saffron growth], as well as organic (30 ton.ha-1 cow manure based on soil and manure analysis results) and chemical fertilizers (220, 150 and 100 kg.ha-1 urea, super-phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively) with a control treatment (no-fertilizer) are studied on some physiological growth indices, corm production and flowering of saffron in this experiment. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized completely block design with three replications in Sarayan county, Iran, during 2014-2016. Vegetative growth indices were studied during the first growth cycle, while flowering indices were measured during the second growth season. Total biomass has an increasing trend during saffron growth cycle in all treatments. This index was higher in cow manure treatment in both levels of water availability, during the last two growth months. Crop growth rate (CGR) was slow (below 3.9 g.m-2.day-1), rapid (3.9-12 g.m-2.day-1) and intermediate (5.5 g.m-2.day-1) in the early (the first 90 days of growth), middle (90-150 days after growth) and late (150-180 days of growth) growth periods. The highest CGR (12 g.m-2.day-1) was obtained in cow manure treatment and 145 days after the first autumnal irrigation. In all treatments, leaf weight ratio (leaf to total plant weight ratio) has a decreasing trend from two months after the first irrigation until the end of the growth cycle and it is slightly higher in fertilization treatments. Cow manure application increased the corm production and total corms weight per plant by 15 and 13%, respectively, compared with the control treatment. The highest mean weight of replacement corms (6.4 g) was shown in combined treatment of cow manure and two weeks' irrigation intervals. The highest values of flower number (98 flower per m2), flower yield (24.3 g.m-2), style yield (0.56 g.m-2) and dry petal yield (3.7 g.m-2) were obtained in plants that had been treated with cow manure and received water in intervals of 4 weeks. In cow manure fertilizer and control treatments, the highest flower and stigma yield were obtained in irrigation intervals of 4 weeks, while in chemical fertilizer treatment, the highest flower and stigma yield were obtained in 2 week irrigation intervals. Therefore, it seems that application of cow manure combined with consumption of 3600 m3.ha-1 is suitable during the first growth cycle of saffron during which corm density and transpiration area are low.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop growth rate
  • Flowering
  • Leaf weight ratio
  • Organic fertilizer
  • Stigma yield
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