عنوان مقاله [English]
Saffron is one of the most important crops and medicinal plants in Iran and plays an important role in non-oil exports of the country. Although Iran has the largest area under cultivation of saffron, its yield is low compared with global production. The main objective of this study is to investigate the yield of flowers and quantitative characteristics of daughter corms under the effects of application of plant growth regulators priming and two different corm sizes. A factorial experiment arrangement in RCBD with four replications was conducted, under the terms of pot at the College of Aburaihan-University of Tehran, Iran during 2015. Small (3-5g) and large (8-10g) mother corm sizes were hormonal priming by gibberelic acid (GA3), cytokinin (BA), auxin (IBA) with 250 ppm concentration and before cultivation. The start of flowering, number and flowers yield, fresh weight of flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma, number and weight of daughter corms per mother corms were measured. The results showed that in all traits except the start of flowering large corms weighing of 8 to 10 g were cultivated in comparison with small corms and this was significant at the 1% level. Application of cytokinins hormone in comparison with control for all traits except the start of flowering and weight of daughter corms showed a significant difference at 1%. Application of gibberellic acid hormone treatment also accelerated flowering. In addition, it increased the weight of daughter corms by 56% in large mother corms compared to control and this had a significant difference from control at 1%. Auxin (IBA) in the number of flowers had no significant difference with control and also in other traits, although IBA was better than control, with both BA and GA3 treatments had a significant difference. The results indicated that the use of large mother corms with hormonal priming with BA and GA3 will improve flower and corm yield in the first year.
Amirghasemi, T. 2004. Saffron, Red Gold of Iran. Nashr- Ayandegan Publication. 112 pp. (In Persian).
Amirshekari, H., Soroushzadeh, A., Modares Sanavi, A., and Jalali Joran, M. 2006. Study of effects of root temperature, corm size, and gibberellin on underground organs of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Biology 19 (1): 5-18. (In Persian with English Summary).
Arteca, R.N. 2000. Plant Growth Sustances Principles and Application. Translated by: Fathi, G. and Esmaielpour, B. Publications University of Mashhad. 72: 161-162.
Asthir, B., Kaur, A., and Basra, A.S. 1998. Do phytohormones influence the uptake and metabolism of sucrose in spikelets of wheat? Phyton Horn 38: 293–299.
Azizbikova, N.S.H., and Milaeva, E.L. 1978. Saffron Cultivation in Azerbaijan. In: Negbi. M.(ed). Crocus Sativus L. Harwood Academic Publishers. Australia. p. 63-71.
Azizi-Zehan, A.A., Kamgar-Haghighi, A.A., and Sepaskhah, A.R. 2008. Crop and pan coefficients for saffron in a Semi-arid region of Iran. Journal of Arid Environments 72: 270-278.
Behdani, M.A., Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Jami Al-Ahmadi, M. 2008. Agroecological zoning and potential yield of saffron in Khorasan-Iran. Journal of Biological Sciences 8 (2): 298-305. (In Persian with English Summary).
Chrungoo, N.K., and Farooq, S. 1984. Influence of GA and NAA on the yield and growth of saffron. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 27: 201-205.
Davis, P.J. 1988. Plant Hormones and their Role in Plant Growth and Development. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 432 pp.
De Juan, A., Moya, A., L˴pez, S., Botella, O., L˴pez, H., and Munoz, R. 2003. Influence of the corm size and the density of plantation in the yield and the quality of the production of corms of Crocus sativus L. ITEA 99: 169-180.
Dhua, R.S., Ghosh, S.K., Mitra, S.K., Yadav, L.P., and Bose, T.K. 2005. Effect of bulb size, temperature treatment of bulbs and chemicals on growth and flower production in tuberose. Acta Horticulture 205: 121-128.
Greenberg-Kaslasi, D. 1991. Vegetative and reproductive development in the saffron corms (Crocus Sativus L.). M.Sc Thesis, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Gresta, F., Lombardo, G.M., Siracusa, L., and Ruberto, G., 2008. Effect of mother corm dimension and sowing time on stigma yield, daughter corms and qualitative aspects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in a Mediterranean environment. Journal Science Food Agriculture 88: 1144–1150.
Hanks, G.R. 1984. Factors affecting the response of tulips to gibberllin. Scientia Horticulturae 23: 3-390.
Koocheki, A. 2013. Research on production of Saffron in Iran: Past trend and future prospects. Saffron Agronomy & Technology 1 (1): 3-21. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Ganjeali, A., and Abbassi, F. 2007. The effect of duration and condition of incubation, weight of mother corms and photoperiod on corm and shoot characteristics of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal Field Crops Research 4: 315–331. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M., and Behdani, M.A. 2006. Agronomic attributes of saffron yield at agroecosystems scale in Iran. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology. Mashhad, Iran, 28-30 October 2006, p. 33-40.
Leite, V.M., Rosolem, C.A., and Rodrigues, J.D. 2003. Gibberlin and Cytokinin effects on soybean growth. Scientia Agricola 60: 537-541.
Letham, D.S. 1994. Cytokinins as phytohormones-sites of biosynthesis, translocation, and function of translocated cytokinin. In: Mok, D.W.S., Mok, M.C. (eds) Cytokinins: Chemistry, Activity, and Function. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p. 57–80.
Long, R.L., Williams, K., Griffiths, E.M., Flematti, G.R., Merritt, D.J., Stevens, J.C., Turner, S.R., Powles, S.B., and Dixon, K.W. 2010. Prior hydration of Brassica tournefortii seeds reduces the stimulatory effect of karrikinolide on germination and increases seed sensitivity to abscisic acid. Annals of Botany 105: 1063-1070.
Mashayekhi, K., Soltani, A., and Kamkar, B. 2006. The relationship between corm weight and total flower and leaf numbers in saffron. In proceedings 2nd International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology, 28-30th October 2006, Mashhad, Iran, p. 93-96.
Matthew, G., Blanchard, M., Erik, and Runkle, S. 2008. Benzyladenine Promotes Flowering in Doritaenopsis and Phalaenopsis orchids. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 27:141–150.
Molina, R.V., Valero, M., Navarro, Y., Guardiola J.L., and Garcia-Luice, A. 2005. Temperature effects on flower formation in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Scientia Horticulturae 103: 361-379
Mortezainejzhad, F., and Etemadi, N. 2010. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of flowers and flowering Salvia (Polianthes tuberosa L.). Journal of New Agricultural Science 6 (18): 89- 96. (In Persian).
Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Boroumand Rezazadeh, Z., and Tabrizi, L. 2007. Effects of corm size and storage period on allocation of assimilates in different parts of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 5: 155-166. (In Persian with English Summary).
Omidbaigi, R. 2005. Effect of corms weight on quality of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 4 (3): 193-194.
Perme, Z., Mohebi, R., Nabizade, A., and Hosseini, M.A. 2010. Export capacity and target bazaars of Iranian saffron. Journal of Stound Research of Economics 51: 59-95.
Renau-Morata, B., Nebauer, S.G., Sánchez, M., and Molina, R.V. 2012. Effect of corm size, water stress and cultivation conditions on photosynthesis and biomass partitioning during the vegetative growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Indian Crop Product 39: 40-46.
Sadeghi, B. 1996. effect of warehousing and planting dates on flowering corms of saffron. Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Khorasan Institute.
Setia, N., Sangeetha, R., Setia, R.C., and Malik, C.P. 1993. Alterations in growth and yield componse to foliar application of naphthyl acetic acid (NAA). Indian Journal Plant physiology 1: 47-52.
Sheibani, M., Nemati, S., Davarinejad, G., Azghandi, A., and Habashi, A. 2007. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in saffron using thidiazuron (TDZ). Acta Horticulturae 10 (20): 3564-3570.
Taiz, L., and Zeiger, E. 2010. Plant Physiology, Fifth edition. Translated by: Kafii, M., Zand, E., Kamkar, B., Abasi, F., Mahdavi, M. Publications University of Mashhad. p: 337, 347, 368, 381, 383.
Teixcia, D.S., and Jaime, A. 2003. The cut flower, postharvest condition. Biological Science Journal 3: 406-442.
Zaferanchi, S., Safari, M., Safari, V., and Mohamadinejad, G. 2011. The effect of plant growth regulators, naphthalene acetic acid and benzyl amino purine and performance characteristics of four genotypes of sesame. Journal of Crop Production in Environmental stress (2): 49-62.