تأثیر پرایمینگ هورمونی و وزن بنه بر عملکرد گل و خصوصیات بنه‌های دختری زعفران در سال اول

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

زعفران یکی از مهم‌ترین محصولات کشاورزی و دارویی ایران است که نقش مهمی در صادرات غیرنفتی دارد. با وجود این‌که ایران بیش‌ترین سطح زیر کشت را دارا می‌باشد ولی میزان عملکرد آن در مقایسه با تولید جهانی اندک است. این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی عملکرد گل و خصوصیات کمّی بنه­های دختری زعفران تحت تأثیر پرایمینگ تنظیم‌کننده‌های رشد گیاهی و دو اندازه مختلف بنه به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار، تحت شرایط گلدانی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس ابوریحان- دانشگاه تهران اجرا شد. بنه‌های بزرگ (10-8 گرم) و کوچک (5-3 گرم) مادری زعفران با اسیدجیبرلیک‌ (GA3)، سایتوکینین (BA) و اکسین (IBA) با غلظت ppm250 به صورت مجزا و قبل از کاشت پرایمینگ هورمونی شدند. صفاتی از قبیل زمان شروع گلدهی، تعداد و عملکرد گل، وزن‌تر گل، وزن‌تر و خشک کلاله، تعداد و وزن بنه‌های دختری حاصل از بنه­های مادری اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که کاربرد بنه بزرگ با وزن 8 الی 10 گرم در مقایسه با بنه کوچک در تمام صفات به‌جز شروع گلدهی در سطح احتمال 1% تفاوت معنی‌دار دارد. کاربرد هورمون سایتوکینین در مقایسه با شاهد برای تمام صفات به‌جز آغاز گلدهی و وزن بنه‌های دختری در سطح احتمال 1% تفاوت معنی‌دار نشان داد. کاربرد هورمون جیبرلین نیز گلدهی را تسریع نمود و در کورم مادری بزرگ وزن بنه‌های دختری را 56% نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد و با شاهد در سطح احتمال 1% اختلاف معنی‌دار داشت. اکسین (IBA) در صفت تعداد گل با شاهد اختلاف معنی­دار نداشت و برای سایر صفات نیز باوجود اینکه از شاهد بهتر بود، با دو تیمار BA و GA3 دارای اختلاف معنی­دار بود. بطورکلی نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد بنه مادری بزرگ به‌همراه پرایمینگ هورمونی آنها با استفاده از BA و GA3 عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران را در سال اول بهبود خواهد بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of hormone priming and corm weight on the yield of flowers and characteristics of daughter corms of saffron in the first year

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marjan Sadat Hoseinifard 1
  • Majid Ghorbani Javid 2
  • Iraj Allahdadi 3
  • Elias Soltani 2
1 M.Sc student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran.
3 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran.
چکیده [English]

Saffron is one of the most important crops and medicinal plants in Iran and plays an important role in non-oil exports of the country. Although Iran has the largest area under cultivation of saffron, its yield is low compared with global production. The main objective of this study is to investigate the yield of flowers and quantitative characteristics of daughter corms under the effects of application of plant growth regulators priming and two different corm sizes. A factorial experiment arrangement in RCBD with four replications was conducted, under the terms of pot at the College of Aburaihan-University of Tehran, Iran during 2015. Small (3-5g) and large (8-10g) mother corm sizes were hormonal priming by gibberelic acid (GA3), cytokinin (BA), auxin (IBA) with 250 ppm concentration and before cultivation. The start of flowering, number and flowers yield, fresh weight of flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma, number and weight of daughter corms per mother corms were measured. The results showed that in all traits except the start of flowering large corms weighing of 8 to 10 g were cultivated in comparison with small corms and this was significant at the 1% level. Application of cytokinins hormone in comparison with control for all traits except the start of flowering and weight of daughter corms showed a significant difference at 1%. Application of gibberellic acid hormone treatment also accelerated flowering. In addition, it increased the weight of daughter corms by 56% in large mother corms compared to control and this had a significant difference from control at 1%. Auxin (IBA) in the number of flowers had no significant difference with control and also in other traits, although IBA was better than control, with both BA and GA3 treatments had a significant difference. The results indicated that the use of large mother corms with hormonal priming with BA and GA3 will improve flower and corm yield in the first year.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corm weight
  • Cytokinin
  • gibberellic acid
  • Stigma
  • Yield

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