ارزیابی تأثیر مبدأ بنه، وزن بنه و محلول‌پاشی برگی بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

بنه مناسب و مدیریت عناصر غذایی، از مهم­ترین عوامل در بهبود تولید و کیفیت زعفران هستند. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر وزن بنه و محلول­پاشی برگی بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی گل دو توده زعفران ایرانی و اسپانیایی، آزمایشی در سال­های 95-1392 به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به مرحله اجرا در آمد. مبدأ بنه مادری زعفران (شامل بنه ایرانی و اسپانیایی)، وزن بنه­ها در سه سطح شامل کمتر از 8 گرم (بنه ریز)، 1/8 تا 15 گرم (بنه متوسط) و1/15 تا 23 گرم (بنه درشت) و محلول­­­پاشی برگی کود کامل (فسفیت پتاسیم + بیومین) در دو سطح (محلول­­­پاشی و عدم محلول­­­پاشی) به ترتیب عوامل اول، دوم و سوم آزمایش در نظر گرفته شدند. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش، با افزایش وزن بنه جهت کاشت، تعداد گل، عملکرد گل­تر و عملکرد کلاله + خامه خشک زعفران به‌طور معنی­داری افزایش یافت، اما اثر محلول‌پاشی برگی بر شاخص­های ذکرشده معنی­دار نبود. تعداد گل و عملکرد گل‌تر زعفران درنتیجه کاشت بنه‌های ایرانی، به ترتیب17، 13 و 14 درصد بیشتر از بنه­های اسپانیایی بود. همچنین، عملکرد کلاله + خامه خشک حاصل از بنه­های ایرانی در مقایسه با بنه­های اسپانیایی تا 1/14 درصد افزایش یافت. با این وجود، غلظت پیکروکروسین در نتیجه کاشت بنه­های اسپانیایی تا 8/3 درصد بیشتر از بنه­های ایرانی بود. طبق نتایج این تحقیق، در کنار محلول­پاشی بهینه عناصر غذایی، اهمیت سازگاری منشأ بنه با شرایط محیطی محل کاشت مورد تأکید می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of corm origin, corm weight and nutrient foliar application on yield and qualitative traits of saffron (.Crocus sativus L)

نویسندگان [English]

  • hossein sahabi 1
  • Mohsen jahan 2
  • alireza kochaki 3
  • Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati 3
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In general, corm weight and nutrient management are considered as the most important factors in relation to quantitative and qualitative traits of saffron. In order to investigate the effects of mother corm origin, mother corm weight and nutrient foliar application on yield and qualitative traits of saffron, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during the years from 2012 to 2015. The mother corm origin (Iranian and Spanish corms), mother corm weight 8 g and lower (small), 8.1–15 g (medium) and 15.1-23 g (large) and nutrient foliar application (application and control) were considered as the first, second and third experimental factors, respectively. According to the results, the larger mother corms significantly resulted in a greater number of flowers per m2, increased fresh flower and dry stigma + style yields. However, the effect of nutrient foliar application was observed to be not significant on these traits. When Iranian mother corms were planted, the number of flowers per m2, fresh flower and dry stigma + style yields were higher, compared with Spanish mother corms. For instance, flower number, fresh flower and dry stigma + style yields increased by 17, 13 and 14%, respectively, when planting Iranian mother corms. Nonetheless, picrocrocin concentration was higher (up to 3.8%) in the Spanish planted corm treatment. Based on the results, beside the optimal nutrient foliar application, the importance of adapting the corms origin with environmental conditions of the site designated for planting is emphasized.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Picrocrocin
  • Dry stigma yield
  • Nutrient Management
Aghaei, M., Rezagholizadeh, M. 2011. Iran's comparative advantage in production of saffron. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 25: 121–132. (In Persian with English Summary).
Akbarian, M.M., Heidari Sharifabad, H., Noormohammadi, Gh., Darvish Kojouri, F. 2012. The effect of potassium, zinc and iron foliar application on the production of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Annals of Biological Research 3: 5651-5658.
Alizadeh, A., Sayari, N., Ahmadian, J., and Mohamadian, A. 2009. Study for zoning the most appropriate time of irrigation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Khorasan Razavi, north and southern provinces. Journal of Water and Soil 23: 109–118. (In Persian with English Summary).
Alizadeh Salteh, S. 2016. Evaluation of the effect of maternal corm and planting methods on flower and replacement corms yield of two ecotypes of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Tabriz. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 3 (4): 251-259.
Amirshekari, H., Sorooshzadeh, A., Modaress Sanavy, A., and Jalali Javaran, M. 2007. Study of effects of root temperature, corm size, and gibberellin on underground organs of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Biology 19: 5–18. (In Persian with English Summary).
Chaji, N., Khorassani, R., Astaraei, A., and Lakzian, A. 2013. Effect of phosphorous and nitrogen on vegetative growth and production of daughter corms of saffron. Journal of Saffron Research 1: 1–12. (In Persian with English Summary).
Gresta, F., Lombardo, G.M., Siracusa, L., and Ruberto, G. 2008. Effect of mother corm dimension and sowing time on stigma yield, daughter corms and qualitative aspects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in a Mediterranean environment. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88: 1144–1150.
Gresta, F., Avola, G., Lombardo, G.M., Siracusa, L., and Ruberto, G. 2009. Analysis of flowering. Stigma yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as affected by environmental conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 119: 320-329.
Hassanzadeh Aval, F., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Bannayan Aval, M., and Khorasani, R. 2014. Effects of maternal corm weight and foliar application on replacement corm characteristics and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the first year. Journal of Saffron Research 2: 73-84. (In Persian with English Summary).
Hosseini, M., Sadeghi, B., and Aghamiri, S.A. 2004. Influence of foliar fertilization on yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Acta Horticulturae 650: 207-209.
Koocheki, A., Ganjeali, A., and Abbassi, F. 2007. The effect of duration and condition of incubation, weight of mother corms and photoperiod on corm and shoot characteristics of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 4: 315–331. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2015. Relationship between nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as affected by mother corm size and fertilization.  Industrial Crops and Products 71: 128–137.
Koocheki, A., Seyyedi, S.M., and Gharaei, S. 2016. Evaluation of the effects of saffron–cumin intercropping on growth, quality and land equivalent ratio under semi-arid conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 201: 190–198.
Kumar, R., Singh, V., Devi, K., Sharma, M., Singh, M.K., and Ahuja, P.S. 2009. State of art of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) agronomy: a comprehensive review. Food Reviews International 25: 44–85.
Lage, M., and Cantrell, C.L. 2009. Quantification of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) metabolites crocins, picrocrocin and safranal for quality determination of the spice grown under different environmental Moroccan conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 121: 366–373.
Maleki, M., Ebrahimzade, H., Gholami, M., and Niknam, V. 2011. The effect of drought stress and exogenous abscisic acid on growth, protein content and antioxidative enzyme activity in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 10: 9068–9075.
Martínez, J.P., Silva, H., Ledent, J.F., and Pinto, M. 2007. Effect of drought stress on the osmotic adjustment, cell wall elasticity and cell volume of six cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). European Journal of Agronomy 26: 30–38.
Moayedi Shahraki, E., Jami Al-Ahmadi, M., and Behdani, M.A. 2010. Study of energy efficiency of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Southern Khorasan. Journal of Agroecology 2: 55–62. (In Persian with English Summary).
Mollafilabi, A. 2014. Effect of new cropping technologies on growth characteristics, yield, yield components of flower and corm criteria of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary).
Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Boroumand Rezazadeh, Z., and Tabrizi, L. 2007. Effects of corm size and storage period on allocation of assimilates in different parts of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 5: 155–166. (In Persian with English Summary).
Renau-Morata, B., Nebauer, S.G., Sánchez, M., and Molina, R.V. 2012. Effect of corm size, water stress and cultivation conditions on photosynthesis and biomass partitioning during the vegetative growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Industrial Crops and Products 39: 40–46.
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Koocheki, A., Molafilabi, A., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2013. Effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on replacement corm and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 15: 234–246.
SabetTeimouri, M., Kafi, M., Avarseji, Z., and Orooji, K. 2010. Effect of drought stress, corm size and corm tunic on morphoecophysiological characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in greenhouse conditions. Journal of Agroecology 2: 323–334. (In Persian with English Summary).
Sadeghi, B. 2012. Effect of corm weight on Saffron flowering. Proceedings of the 4th International Saffron Symposium, Keshmir, Iran.
Sahabi, H., Jahan, M., Kochaki, A., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2017. Effect of mother corm weight and foliar application of nutrients on flower and corm yield of Spanish and Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Saffron Agronomy and Technology 5 (2): 123-131.
Sameni, A.M., and Kasraian, A. 2004. Effect of agricultural sulfur on characteristics of different calcareous soils from dry regions of Iran. II. Reclaiming effects on structure and hydraulic conductivity of the soils under saline-sodic conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 35: 1235–1246.
Sepaskhah, A.R., and Kamgar-Haghighi, A.A. 2009. Saffron irrigation regime. International Journal of Plant Production 3: 1–16.
Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., Amin Ghafori, A., and Gheshm, R. 2013. Effects on management of crop residues and cover crop planting on density and population of weeds and agronomical characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Saffron Research 1: 57-72. (In Persian with English Summary).
Srivastava, R., Ahmed, H., Dixit, R.K., and Dharamveer­Saraf, S.A., 2010. Crocus sativus L.: a comprehensive review. Pharmacognosy Reviews 4: 200–208.