مطالعه اثر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر ویژگی‌های بنه‌های دختری و گل زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، پردیس بین الملل دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد گروه اگرواکولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استاد گروه باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی

5 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

چکیده

 به‌منظور ارزیابی ویژگی‌های بنه دختری و عملکرد زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) در پاسـخ بـه کودهـای آلـی و شیمیایی آزمایشی طی دو سال زراعی 93-1392 به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شهرستان زاوه اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل کودآلی در 6 سطح (کود گوسفندی (10 تن در هکتار)، کود گاوی (30 تن در هکتار)، ورمی کمپوست (6 تن در هکتار)، کود مرغی (5 تن در هکتار)، کمپوست زباله شهری (9 تن در هکتار) و شاهد) و فاکتور دوم کود شیمیایی در دو سطح (مصرف کود شیمیایی (نیتروژن و فسفر به ترتیب 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره و 80 کیلوگرم در هکتارسوپر فسفات تریپل) و عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی) بود. صفات مورد بررسی در این پژوهش صفات کمی بنه‌های دختری در سال کشت و صفات گل در سال دوم کشت بود. شاخص‌های مورد ارزیابی شامل وزن کل بنه در واحد سطح، متوسط تعداد جوانه‌ها در هر بنه، قطر بنه و تعداد بنه‌های دختری به تفکیک در گروه­های وزنی، تعداد گل، وزن­تر گل، وزن­خشک کلاله و خامه در مترمربع و شاخص برداشت کلاله بود. مقایسه میانگین اثرات متقابل تیمارهای موردمطالعه نشان داد که بیشترین و کمترین تعدادکل بنه به ترتیب در تیمار شاهد + مصرف کودشیمیایی (228 بنه در مترمربع) و در تیمار کود مرغی + عدم مصرف کودشیمیایی (177 بنه در مترمربع) می‌باشد. بیشترین و کمترین وزن­کل بنه (به ترتیب 67/1875 و 27/1623 گرم در مترمربع) و متوسط وزن بنه (به ترتیب 94/10 و 75/7 گرم در مترمربع) و متوسط قطر بنه (به ترتیب 3 و 72/2 سانتی­متر) و متوسط تعداد جوانه (به ترتیب 8 و 33/1 جوانه در هر بنه) به­ترتیب در تیمار کود مرغی + عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی و تیمار شاهد + با مصرف کود شیمیایی به‌دست آمد. تیمار شاهد + با مصرف کودشیمیایی بیشترین درصد بنه در گروه وزنی کمتر از 4 گرم (64/12 درصد) و 1/4 تا 8 گرم (31/10 درصد) را به خود اختصاص داد. بیشترین درصد بنه در گروه وزنی 1/8 تا 12 گرم (77/16 درصد)، درصد بنه در گروه وزنی 1/12 تا 16 گرم (10/18 درصد) و بیشتر از 1/16 گرم (38/31 درصد) در تیمار کود مرغی + بدون مصرف کودشیمیایی به‌دست آمد. نتایج مقایسه میانگین اثرات متقابل تیمارهای موردمطالعه برویژگی‌های گل زعفران نشان­داد بیشترین و کمترین تعداد گل (به­ترتیب 142 و 56 گل در مترمربع)، وزن­تر گل (به ترتیب 20/50 و 60/17 گرم در مترمربع)، وزن خشک خامه (به­ترتیب 405/0 و 169/0 گرم در مترمربع)، وزن خشک کلاله (به­ترتیب 685/0 و 080/0 گرم در مترمربع) و شاخص برداشت کلاله (به ترتیب 0082/0 و 0011/0) درنتیجه مصرف کود مرغی + عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی و تیمار شاهد + مصرف کودشیمیایی حاصل شد. نتایج نشان داد عملکرد گل زعفران در سال دوم تحت تأثیر مستقیم وزن بنه‌های دختری تولیدشده در سال اول بود. به‌طورکلی نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد کاربرد کودهای آلی در مقایسه با کود شیمیایی اثر بیشتری بر ویژگی بنه‌های دختری زعفران و عملکرد زعفران داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study the effects of organic and chemical fertilizers on replacement corms and flower characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zakieh Shariatmadari 1
  • Mahmoud Shoor 2
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 3
  • Ali Tehranifar 4
  • ahmad ahmadian 5
1 PhD Student, Department of Horticulter, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad international campus
2 Department of Horticulter, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Professor of AgroEcology Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
4 Department of Horticulter, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,
5 Assistant Professor of Plant Production Department, and Researcher of Saffron Institute, University of Torbat Heydarieh
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of organic and chemical fertilizers on replacement cormsand flowercharacteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications in a farm at Zaveh, Iran in the growing season of 2013-2014 The experimental treatments were all combination of six types of organic fertilizers (Sheep manure (10 t.ha-1), cow manure (30 t.ha-1), vermi compost (6 t.ha-1), hen manure (5 t.ha-1), urban compost (9 t.ha-1) and control and using and not using chemical fertilizer (Nitrogen (100 kg.ha-1)+Phosphate (80 kg.ha-1)). The studied criteria included: total weight  of cormper square meter, average number of buds per corm, diameter of corm and number of replacement cormsin each weight categories (0.1-4g,4.1-8g, 8.1-12g,12.1-16g and more than16.1g), number of flowers, fresh weight offlowers,stigmaandstyle dry weight per square meter, and harvest index of stigma. The results showed that the simple and interaction effects of  using and not using chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers on all studied criteria were significant. Control+chemical fertilizer and hen manure+without chemical fertilizer treatments produced the highest and lowest total corm number (228 and 177 corm per in m2), respectively. The highest and lowest total corm weight (1876 and 1623 g.m-2, respectively), average single corm weight (10.94 and 7.75 g.m-2, respectively), average corm diameter (3 and 2.72 cm, respectively) and average number of buds (8 and 1.33 bud per corm, respectively) were obtained in hen manure+without chemical fertilizer and control+chemical fertilizer treatments, respectively. Control+chemical fertilizer produced the highest replacement corms at the weights of 0.1-4 (12.64%) and 4.1-8g (10.31%) categories. The highest percentage of number of replacement corms at 8.1-12 (16.77%), 12.1-16 (18.10%), and more than 16.1g (31.38%) weight categories were shown in the hen manure+ without chemical fertilizer treatment. Hen manure+without chemical fertilizer and control+ chemical fertilizer treatments produced the highest and lowest number of flowers (142 and 56 flower per square meter, respectively), fresh flower weight (50.20 and 17.60 g.m-2, respectively), stigma dry weight (0.405 and 0.169 g.m-2, respectively), style dry weight (0.685and 0.080 g.m-2, respectively), harvest index of stigma (0.0082, 0.0011, respectively), respectively. The results showed that flower yield in the second year was directly affected by the weight of replacement corms which were produced in the first year. Overall, the results of the present study revealed that the application of organic fertilizer compared with chemical fertilizers had superior effect on replacement corms and yield criteria of saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Diameter of corm
  • Fresh flower weight
  • Stigma dry weight
  • Stigma harvest index
  • Number of flower

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