عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to evaluate the allelopathic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corm and leaf aqueous solution on germination characteristics and preliminary growth of weed species including wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and couch grass (Agropayron repense) two separate experiments for each species were conducted at the research laboratory of the School of Agriculture of the University of Birjand in 2016. A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted for each species. The factors included saffron organs at two levels (leaves and corms) and water extract concentrations at 5 levels (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent). The results indicated that the lowest seed germination percentage of wild barley and couch grass were observed at a concentration of 2% of leaf and concentration of 2% of corm, respectively. The results indicated that the lowest rate of germination of wild barley and couch grass were observed at a concentration of 2% of leaf and corm extract, respectively. Different concentrations of leaf and corm extracts significantly decreased the length of radicle, seedling fresh weight and seedling dry weight of two weeds. The logistic model provided a successful estimation of the relationship between leaf water extract and germination percentage of two weeds. Based on orthogonal comparison tests, the allelopathic inhibitory effects of saffron leaves and corms were the same for two weeds. The results showed that leaf extract of saffron the most influence on wild barley and corm extract of saffron the best effect on couch grass. Therefore, results of this study, confirm that can be used the allelopathic effects of saffron to reduce these two weeds in the field.
Abbasi, F., and Jahani, M. 2007. Allelopathic effects of saffron corms on seed germination of several important crops. International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology, Mashhad, Iran, pp. 250-256.
Alimoradi, L., Azizi, G., Jahani, M., Siah-Marguee, A., and Keshavarzi, A. 2008. Allelopathy as an alternative method for weed control in saffron fields: A suitable approach to sustainable agriculture. Competition for resources in a changing world: New drive for rural development, Stuttgart, p.127-145. (In Persian).
Alipoor, Z., and Mahmoodi, S. 2015. Allelopathic effects of leaf and corm water extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on germination and seedling growth of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.). Saffron Agronomy and Technology 3:13-24. (In Persian with English Summary).
Amirghasemi, T. 2001. Saffron, Iranian Red gold. Cultural Institution Publication Posterity Press. p.70-110.
Asgarpour, R., Khajeh-Hosseini, M., and Khorramdel, S. 2015. Effect of aqueous extract concentrations of saffron organs on germination characteristics and preliminary growth of three weed species. Journal of Saffron Research 3 (1): 81-96.
Asgharipour, M.R., Rashed-Mohassel, M.H., Rostami, M., and Eizadi, E. 2006. The allelopathic potential of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on following crop in rotation. International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology, Mashhad, Iran, 28-30 October p. 48p.
Azizi, M., Alimoradee, L., and Rashed-Mohassel, M.H. 2006. Allelopathic effects of Bunium persicum and Cuminum cyminum essential oils on seed germination of some weeds species. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 22: 198-208. (In Persian).
Bohm, P.A.F., Zanardo, F.M.L., and Ferrarese, O. 2006. Peroxidase activity and lignification in soybean root growth-inhibition by juglone. Biologia Plantarum 50 (2): 315-317
Brown, P.D., and Morra, M.J. 1996. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates in Brassica napus tissues as inhibitors of seed germination. Plant and Soil 181:307-316.
Chauhan, B.S., Gill, G., and Preston, C. 2006. Factors affecting seed germination of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) in southern Australia. Weed Science 54: 854-860.
Drost, D.C., and Doll, J.D. 1980. The allelopathic effect of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) on corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science 28: 229-233.
Eghbali, S., Rashed-Mohassel, M.H., Nassiri-Mahallati, M., and Kazerooni-Monfared, E. 2007. Allelopathic potential of shoot and corm of saffron residues on wheat, rye, vetch and bean. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research 6: 227-234. (In Persian).
Fernandez, J.A., Escribano, J., Piqueras, A., and Medina, J. 2000. A glycoconjugate from corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.) inhibits root growth and affects in vitro cell viability. Journal of Experimental Botany 51: 731-742.
Ghiazdowsk, A., Oracz, K., and Bogatek, R. 2007. Phytotoxic effect of sunflower leaf extracts on
germinating mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seeds. Allelopathy Journal 19: 215-226.
Hartman, H., Kester, D., and Davis, F. 1990. Plant propagation, principle and practices. Prentice Hall Imitational Editions. 647 p.
Hasani, M.R., and Khalajzadeh, S. 2011. Allelopathic effects of aerial plant water extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on germination and seedling growth of Cichorum (Cichorium sativa L.). Seventh Congress Iranian Horticultural Science, Isfahan University of Technology. (In Persian with English Summary).
Hashemi Nia, S.M., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Keshavarzi, A. 2009. Determining the threshold salinity and appropriate temperature and their combined effects on germination of Cuminum cyminum. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research 7 (1): 303-310.
Hejazi, A. 2000. Allelopathy. Tehran University Press. p. 324-325. (In Persian).
Hojatian Far, M., Bagherzadeh, A., Asaadi, M.R., and Rahnama, O. 2011. Allelopathic effects of agricultural waste products on germination and seedling growth characteristics of maize single cross 704. First National Conference on New Issues in Agriculture. Islamic Azad University of Saveh. ( In Persian with English Summary).
Kohli, R.K., Singh, H.P., and Batish, D.R. 2001.Allelopathy in Agroecosystems. Food Products Press, USA, 447 p.
Kruse, M., Strandberg, M., and Strandberg, B. 2000. Ecological effects of allelopathic Plants. A review National Environment Research Institute, Sikleborg, Denmark. 66 p.
Lydon, J.R., Rele, T., and Chen, P.K. 1997.Allelopathic activity of annual ormwood (Artemisia annua) and the role artemisinin. Weed Science 45: 807-811.
Makkizadeh, M., Salimi, M., and Farhoudi, R. 2009. Allelopathic effect of rue (Ruta graveolens L.) on seed germination of three weeds. Iranian Journal Medicinal Aromatic Plants 24: 463-471. (In Persian).
Meyghani, F. 2003. Allelopathy from Concept to Application. Incident Beam Press. p. 41-107.
Mojab, M., and Mahmodi, M. 2008. Allelopathic effects of shoot and root water extracts of Hoary cress (Cardaria draba) on germination characteristic and seedling growth of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Crop Production 1 (4): 65-78. (In Persian with English Summary).
Narwal, S.S., and Tauro, P. 1996. Allelopathy in pests management for sustainable agriculture. Proceding of the International Conference on Allelopathy. New Delhi, India. 1: 67-76.
Qasem, J.R. 1992. Pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) interference in transplanted tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum). Horticultural Science 67: 421-427.
Qomi, S., and Tavili, A. 2012. Inhibitory effect growth of salvia (Salvia sclarea L) on some seed germination characteristics downy brome (Bromus tomentellus Boiss). Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Technologhy 1: 201-211. (In Persian).
Ramezani, S., Saharkhiz, M.J., Ramezani, F., and Fotokian, M.H. 2008. Use of essential oils as bioherbicides. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plant 11: 319-327.
Rashed Mohassel, M. 1990. Weeds Identifies of South Khorasan Saffron. Industrial and Scientific Publications Research Organization of Iran –Central Khorasan.
Shaykra, A., and Bukhtiar, B. 1990. Drought tolerance in lentil. Differential genotypic response to drought. Journal of Agricultural Research 28:117 -126.
Soltanipor, M., Hajebi, A., Dastjerdi, A., and Ebrahimi, S. 2007. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of Zhumeria majdae on seed germination of seven species of vegetables. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 23 (1): 51-58. (In Persian with English Summary).
Steinsiek, J.W., Oliver, L.R., and Collins, F.C. 1982. Allelopathic potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw on selected weed species. Weed Science 30: 495-497.
Taheri, K., Saboora, A., and Kiarostami, K. 2011. Allelopathic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on germination and seedling growth of four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Biology 24: 89-103. (In Persian).
Ture, M.A., and Tawaha, A.M. 2002. Inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of black mustard on germination and growth of lentil. Pakistan Journal of Agronomy 1: 28-30.
Younesi, O., Sharifzadeh, F., Fatahi, F., and Pirozi, B. 2008. Study of allelopathic effects of rye and wheat on germination and early growth of lambsquarter (Solanum nigrum L.) and black nightshade (Chenopodium album). Journal of Resarch in Agriculturral Science 4: 41 -49. (In Persian with English Summary).
Zand, A., Rahimian, M., Ashhadi, H., Koocheki, A., Khalghani, J., Mosavi, K., and Ramzani, K. 2004. Weed Ecology (Application Management). Mashhad University Press. 558 p. (Translated in Persian).
Zeinali, E., and Ehteshami, M.R. 2003. Biology and Control of Important Weed Species. Gorgan University Press. p. 4-8. (In Persian).