تاثیر دگرآسیبی گیاه زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) برخصوصیات جوانه زنی و رشدگیاهچه جو وحشی (Hordeum spontaneum)و مرغ (Agropayron repense)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، گرایش فیزیولوژی گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 استادیارگروه باغبانی و مرکز پژوهشی گیاهان ویژه منطقه، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی خصوصیات جوانه‌زنی و رشد اولیه گیاهچه دو علف هرز جو وحشی (Hordeum spontaeum)  و مرغ (Agropayron repense) تحت تأثیر غلظت­های عصاره آبی بنه و برگ زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) دو آزمایش مجزا برای هریک از گونه‌ها به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در آزمایشگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی بیرجند در سال 1394 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل دو نوع اندام زعفران در دو سطح (برگ و بنه) و غلظت عصاره در پنج سطح (0، 0.5 ،1، 1.5 و 2 درصد وزنی- حجمی عصاره آبی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که غلظت­های مختلف عصاره برگ و بنه زعفران درصد جوانه­زنی هر دو گونه علف هرز را کاهش داد. کمترین درصد و سرعت جوانه­زنی جو وحشی و مرغ به­ترتیب از تیمارهای دو درصد عصاره‌ی برگ و دو درصد عصاره بنه حاصل شد. همچنین غلظت­های متفاوت عصاره برگ و بنه، شاخص­های طول ریشه‌چه، وزن­تر گیاهچه و وزن خشک گیاهچه را به‌طور معنی­داری کاهش داد. برازش مدل لجستیک سه پارامتری، رابطه بین سطوح مختلف عصاره آبی و درصد جوانه‌زنی بذور جو وحشی  و مرغ را به‌خوبی توجیه نمود. همچنین مقایسات گروهی بین عصاره برگ و بنه زعفران نشان داد که اثر بازدارندگی عصاره برگ و بنه برای هر دو علف هرز یکسان بوده و تفاوت معنی­داری با یکدیگر نداشتند. به‌طورکلی نتایج نشان داد که عصاره برگ زعفران بیشترین تأثیر را بر جو وحشی و عصاره بنه بیشترین تأثیر را بر علف هرز مرغ داشتند. لذا نتایج این تحقیق­، تأییدکننده این مطلب است که می­توان از اثرات دگرآسیبی زعفران، جهت کاهش این دو علف هرز در مزرعه بهره جست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Allelopathic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on germination and seedling growth characteristics of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and couch grass (Agropayron repense)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Ghesmati 1
  • Mohammed Hossein Aminifard 2
  • Masume Abdollahi 1
  • Masume Shakeri 1
1 M.Sc. Graduate Students Medicinal plant physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Horticulture Science Department and Special Plants Regional Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the allelopathic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corm and leaf aqueous solution on germination characteristics and preliminary growth of weed species including wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and couch grass (Agropayron repense) two separate experiments for each species were conducted at the research laboratory of the School of Agriculture of the University of Birjand in 2016. A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted for each species. The factors included saffron organs at two levels (leaves and corms) and water extract concentrations at 5 levels (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent). The results indicated that the lowest seed germination percentage of wild barley and couch grass were observed at a concentration of 2% of leaf and concentration of 2% of corm, respectively. The results indicated that the lowest rate of germination of wild barley and couch grass were observed at a concentration of 2% of leaf and corm extract, respectively. Different concentrations of leaf and corm extracts significantly decreased the length of radicle, seedling fresh weight and seedling dry weight of two weeds. The logistic model provided a successful estimation of the relationship between leaf water extract and germination percentage of two weeds. Based on orthogonal comparison tests, the allelopathic inhibitory effects of saffron leaves and corms were the same for two weeds. The results showed that leaf extract of saffron the most influence on wild barley and corm extract of saffron the best effect on couch grass. Therefore, results of this study, confirm that can be used the allelopathic effects of saffron to reduce these two weeds in the field.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • weed
  • Water extract
  • Length of radicle
  • Dry weight

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