بررسی فلور و ساختار جوامع علف‌های هرز مزارع زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) استان خراسان رضوی

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده کشاورزی، پردیس بین الملل دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

10.22048/jsat.2017.82782.1224

چکیده

  استان خراسان رضوی به‌عنوان قطب تولید زعفران در ایران و دنیا می‌باشد. در بین عوامل مؤثر در خلأ عملکرد زعفران، علف‌های هرز از مهم‌ترین عوامل می‌باشند. با این وجود در سطح استان اطلاعاتی مدون در خصوص ساختار جوامع علف‌های هرز وجود ندارد. این بررسی باهدف تعیین فلور و ساختار جوامع علف‌های هرز و تعیین غالبیت گونه‌های مختلف علف‌های هرز مزارع زعفران استان خراسان رضوی طی دو سال زراعی 93-92 و 94-93 انجام شد .برای این منظور، تعداد 118 مزرعه در 6 شهرستان بر اساس سطح مزارع و میزان تولید در واحد سطح انتخاب شدند. در هر مزرعه علف‌های هرز به تفکیک جنس و گونه شمارش و طول و عرض جغرافیایی و ارتفاع از سطح دریا توسط سیستم موقعیت‌یاب جهانی برداشت و ثبت شد. با استفاده از این اطلاعات، شاخص‌های جمعیتی گونه‌های مختلف علف هرز مزارع زعفران شهرستان‌های موردبررسی ازجمله میانگین تراکم نسبی و فراوانی نسبی گونه‌ها محاسبه شد. در طی دو سال بررسی مزارع موردنظر، تعداد 52 گونه علف‌هرز مشاهده و شناسایی شد که خانواده‌های شب بو، کاسنی، گندمیان، بقولات و میخک به ترتیب دارای بیشترین فراوانی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین و کمترین تعداد گونه به ترتیب متعلق به شهرستان‌های تربت‌حیدریه و گناباد بود. علف‌های هرز مهم مزارع زعفران استان خراسان رضوی، براساس شاخص غالبیت به ترتیب شامل جو موشی (Hordeum murinum L.) و خاکشیر تلخ (Sisymbrium septulatum DC.)از گونه‌های یک‌ساله و شاهی وحشی (Cardaria draba L.)و بومادران (Achillea millefoliam L.) از گونه‌های چندساله بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of flora and structure of weed communities of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) fields in Khorasan Razavi province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Asghar Padarloo 1
  • Ebrahim Izadi Darbandi 2
  • Mohammad Hassam Rashed Mohassel 3
  • Hassan Feizi 4
1 PhD student, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
چکیده [English]

  The Khorasan Razavi province is the center of saffron production in Iran and the world. Among factors affecting saffron gap yield, weeds are the most important one. However there is no compiled information about saffron weed flora population and its structural characteristics in the Khorasan Razavi province. In order to identify and determine the density and frequency of weed species on saffron fields in the Khorasan Razavi province, 118 fields in 6 counties during two years (2014 and 2015) were selected based on the cultivation area and yield per area. In each field, weed species were counted in each sampling point and weed population indices including mean relative density, relative uniformity and frequently were calculated and latitude and altitude were recorded by GPS. By using recorded data, population indices of different weed species in the studied saffron farms including mean relative density and relative frequency of species were calculated.  During 2 years, a total of 52 weed species were identified and observed within the saffron fields. Between plant families, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae and Charyophilaceae were the most abundant families, respectively. The results showed that the highest and lowest number of weed species belong to Kashmar and Gonabad counties, respectively. Based on the frequency index, the important annual weed species on saffron fields of the Khorasan Razavi province wereMouse Barle (Hordeum murinum) and London Roket (Sisymbrium septulatum) and perennial species were Hoary Cress (Cardaria draba) andCommon yarrow (Achillea millefoliam).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Global Positioning System
  • Dominance index
  • Frequency
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