اثر مدیریت تغذیه بر عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

10.22048/jsat.2017.50067.1154

چکیده

این تحقیق باهدف مطالعه نقش سطوح مختلف عناصر غذایی و محلول­پاشی آهن در بهبود عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال‌های زراعی 93-90 به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. در این پژوهش تأثیر سطوح مختلف کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم (NPK) در سه سطح (0-0-0، 30-15-30 و60-30-60)، ورمی­کمپوست در دو سطح (صفر و 4 تن در هکتار)، اسید­هیومیک در دو سطح (صفر و 5 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و محلول­پاشی آهن در دو سطح (صفر، 08/0 میکرو مول) بر خصوصیات کمی گل و کلاله شامل تعداد گل، وزن­تر، وزن خشک گل، وزن­تر و وزن خشک کلاله گیاه زعفران به مدت دو سال موردمطالعه قرار گرفت. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثرات اصلی فاکتورهای آزمایش بر صفات کمی گل و کلاله گیاه زعفران معنی­دار بود و باعث افزایش این صفات شد. بین سطوح مختلف کود شیمیایی اختلاف معنی­داری مشاهده شد و بالاترین سطح (60-30-60) در مقایسه با سایر سطوح بیشترین تأثیر را بر تعداد گل (m2165) و وزن خشک کلاله (g.m-216/1) داشت. اثر متقابل کود شیمیایی با هر یک از فاکتورهای ورمی­کمپوست، اسید­هیومیک و محلول­پاشی آهن معنی­دار بود و موجب بهبود تعداد گل در واحد سطح گردید و وزن خشک کلاله را در مقایسه با شاهد به ترتیب به میزان 3/3، 1/3 و 7/2 درصد افزایش داد. اثر متقابل 3 گانه اسید­هیومیک، ورمی­کمپوست و کودشیمیایی بر وزن خشک کلاله در واحد سطح معنی­دار بود به‌طوری‌که بالاترین سطح کود شیمیایی (NPK) (60-30-60) به همراه ورمی­کمپوست و اسید­هیومیک بالاترین وزن خشک کلاله (g.m-24/1) را ایجاد کرد. اثر متقابل چهارگانه شامل سال، ورمی­کمپوست، کود شیمیایی NPK و محلول­پاشی آهن بر وزن خشک گل و همچنین وزن­تر و خشک کلاله معنی­دار بود (p≤0.05) ، به‌طوری‌که وزن خشک کلاله در مقایسه با شاهد بهبود یافت. صفات کمی گل و کلاله در سال دوم در مقایسه با سال اول بیشتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of nutrition management on saffron (.Crocus sativus L) stigma and flower yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roshanak Shahriary 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Mohsen Jahan 3
  • Reza Khorasani 3
1 PhD Student of Crop Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

The current study investigates the effects of different levels of nutrient and Fe foliar application on stigma and flower yield of saffron. A field experiment was conducted as a factorial layout based on complete randomized block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2012-2014. The experimental factors included chemical fertilizer (NPK) at three levels (0-0-0, 30-15-30, 60-30-60 kg.ha-1), vermicompost at two levels (0, 4 t.ha-1), humic acid at two levels (0, 5 kg.ha-1) and two levels of Fe foliar spraying concentration (0, 0.08 µmol). The number of flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma and flower yield were determined for two years. The results of analysis of variance revealed that the studied experimental factors had a significant effect on quantitative traits of saffron flowers and stigma. There was a significant difference between the chemical fertilizer levels on flower number and stigma dry weight. The highest flower number (165.m-2) and stigma dry weight (1.16 g.m-2) were obtained in the NPK fertilizer (60-30-60) treatment. Moreover, the interaction between chemical fertilizer and other factors was significant and led to the improvement of the number of flowers and stigma dry weight per unit of area. Stigma dry weight increased in vermicompost, humic acid and Fe foliar application compared with control (3.3 1.3 and 2.7 percent, respectively). However, two-way interaction of factors did not affect the number of flower.m-2. In addition, the three-way interaction of humic acid, vermicompost and chemical fertilizer significantly affected stigma dry weight.m-2. Four-way interaction of all studied factors including year, vermicompost, chemical fertilizer and Fe foliar spraying were significant on flower dry weight and stigma fresh and dry weight per unit area when compared with control (p≤0.05). Quantitative traits of flower and stigma in the second year improved in comparison with the first year. The interaction effects between year and chemical fertilizer was significant on the traits that were studied.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Humic Acid
  • Organic manure
  • Stigma yield
  • Vermicompost
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