امکان جایگزینی کودهای آلی با شیمیایی در زراعت زعفران در سطوح مختلف تراکم بنه در خراسان شمالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

10.22048/jsat.2017.75396.1214

چکیده

با توجه به تغییر اقلیم و مساعد شدن شرایط اقلیمی استان خراسان شمالی برای کاشت زعفران و از طرفی اهمیت تراکم مناسب کاشت بنه و مدیریت عناصر غذایی در تولید این محصول، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شهرستان شیروان در سال‌های زراعی 1393-1392، 1394-1393 و 1395-1394 اجرا گردید. تراکم کاشت (50، 100 و 150 بنه در مترمربع) در کرت‌های اصلی و مدیریت کودی [عدم مصرف کود (شاهد)، کود شیمیایی اوره، سوپر فسفات تریپل و سولفات پتاسیم به مقادیر 100، 100، 50 (C1) ، 200، 200، 100 (C2) و 300، 300، 150 (C3) کیلوگرم در هکتار و کود گاوی به مقادیر 3066، 6132 و 9198 کیلوگرم در هکتار (به ترتیب معادل با 100، 200 و 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره)] به‌عنوان کرت‌های فرعی بود. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش، در طی سه سال بهره‌برداری از مزرعه افزایش تراکم کاشت بنه و همچنین مصرف کود دامی باعث بهبود گلدهی و بهبود رشد بنه‌های دختری زعفران گردید. بالاترین سطح تراکم در مقایسه با تراکم حداقل، تعداد و وزن‌تر گل، وزن خشک کلاله، تعداد و وزن­تر بنه را به ترتیب 35، 61، 29، 180 و 122 درصد افزایش داد. بالاترین سطح مصرف کود دامی نیز در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد، تعداد و وزن‌تر گل، وزن خشک کلاله و وزن‌تر بنه را به­ترتیب 32، 51، 38 و 51 درصد بهبود بخشید. از این رو، بالاترین عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران به واسطه کاشت بنه با تراکم 150 بنه در مترمربع به همراه مصرف 9198 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود دامی حاصل شد. در مجموع، به نظر می‌رسد تولید زعفران با استفاده از کود آلی در مقایسه با کود شیمیایی مطلوبیت بیشتری دارد و کاشت پرتراکم بنه نیز می‌تواند به‌عنوان راه­کاری برای بهبود عملکرد زعفران در سال‌های ابتدایی پس از کاشت مورد توجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The possibility of replacing chemical fertilizer with organic manure in saffron cultivation at different levels of corm density under Northern Khorasan climatic conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Koocheki 1
  • Ghorban Ali Asadi 2
  • Milad Bagheri Shirvan 3
  • Bahareh Bicharanlou 3
1 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 PhD Student, Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Due to climate change it seems that the suitable area for production of saffron is shifting towards the Northern area of Khorasan. On the other hand, corm density and nutrient management are important factors in saffron production. To find out the credibility of this assumption, an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete blocks design arranged in split plot with three replications in a field located 10 km of Shirvan during the 2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16 growing seasons. Corm density (50, 100 and 150 corm.m-2) and different amounts of chemical and organic manure [No fertilizer (Control), amount of urea, triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate 100, 100, 50 (C1), 200, 200, 100 (C2) and 300, 300, 150 (C3), cow manure consumption based on 100 kg.ha-1 urea (3066 kg.ha-1), based on 200 kg.ha-1 urea (6132 kg.ha-1) and based on 300 kg.ha-1 urea (9198 kg.ha-1)] were allocated to the main and sub-plots, respectively. Three year average of harvest showed that flower and corm traits improved with increasing corm density and cow manure consumption, while the highest density compared to minimum density caused increasing flower number, fresh flower yield, dried stigma yield, daughter corm number and corm yield by 35, 61, 29, 180 and 122 percent, respectively. Also the highest amount of cow manure compared to control increased flower number, fresh flower yield, dried stigma yield and corm yield by 32, 51, 38 and 51 percentages, respectively. Therefore, more flower and corm yield were obtained in 9198 kg.ha-1 cow manure consumption with 150 corm.m-2 planting density. Therefore, it seems that the production of saffron is suitable using with organic manure compared with chemical manure. Moreover, saffron planting with high corm density is a solution for improving the yield of saffron in the early years of planting.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corm yield
  • Cow manure
  • Nutrient Management
  • Saffron stigma

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