نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بوم شناسی زراعی، پردیس بین الملل دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه اگروتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر وزن بنه مادری (شامل 7-1/4، 10- 1/7 و 13- 1/10 گرم) و سطوح مختلف کود گاوی (شامل30 (شاهد)، 60 و 90 تن در هکتار) بر خصوصیات گل و بنه‌های دختری زعفران، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار طی دو سال‌ زراعی (94-93 و 93-92) در شهرستان زاوه اجرا شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس در سال اول و دوم نشان داد که بین اثرات ساده و اثرات متقابل اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه اختلاف معنی‌دار وجود داشت و این اختلافات در سال دوم بیشتر بود. بیشترین و کمترین تعداد گل بترتیب در تیمارهای 90 تن کود گاوی همراه با بنه درشت (13-1/10 گرم) و 60 تن کود گاوی همراه با بنه ریز (7-1/4 گرم) مشاهده گردید. تیمار های 60 تن کود گاوی همراه با بنه درشت و 60 تن کود گاوی همراه با بنه ریز بترتیب بیشترین و کمترین وزن خشک کلاله را تولید کردند. بیشترین و کمترین تعداد کل بنه دختری و عملکرد کل بنه دختری بترتیب متعلق به تیمارهای 90 تن کود گاوی همراه با بنه درشت و30 تن (شاهد) کود گاوی همراه با بنه ریز بود. همچنین مقایسات میانگین اثر متقابل در سال دوم نشان داد که تیمارهای 90 تن کود گاوی همراه با بنه درشت و30 تن (شاهد) کود گاوی همراه با بنه ریز بترتیب بیشترین و کمترین تعداد گل ، وزن خشک کلاله ، تعداد کل بنه دختری و عملکرد کل بنه دختری را دارا بودند. در نهایت می‌توان این‌گونه نتیجه‌گرفت که با افزایش مصرف کود گاوی (بیش از 60 تن) و استفاده از بنه‌های مادری با وزن بیش از 7 گرم می‌توان باعث بهبود صفات تعداد و عملکرد بنه دختری شده و این صفات بخصوص در سال‌های آتی باعث افزایش عملکرد کلاله زعفران می‌گردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Mother Corm Weight and Cow Manure on Saffron Flower and Corm Yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • ramin Esmi 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
  • ahmad ahmadian 3

1 Agriculture – Jahad Organization khorasan razavi

2 Professor, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

3 Assistant Professor of Plant Production Department, and Researcher of Saffron Institute, University of Torbat Heydarieh

چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of mother corm weight (including 4.1-7, 7.1-10 and 10.1-13 g) and different levels of cow manure (including 30 (control), 60 and 90 t/ha) on flower characteristics and daughter corms of saffron, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted during two cropping years (2012-13, 2013-14) in Zaweh county. The results of variance analysis in the first and second years showed that there were significant differences between the simple effects and the interaction effects in terms of most of the studied traits, and these differences were higher in the second year. The highest (56.8 m-2) and the lowest (41.3 m-2) flower numbers were obtained in 90 t/ha cow manure with bigger corm size ( 10.1-13 g) and 60 t/ha cow manure with smaller corm size (4.1-7 g) treatments, respectively. 60 t/ha cow manure with bigger corm size (10.1-13 g) and 60 t/ha cow manure with smaller corm size (4.1-7 g) treatments produced the highest (0.347 g.m-2) and the lowest (0.220 g.m-2) dry weight of stigma, respectively. The highest and the lowest of total number of daughter corms (504.2 and 264.7 m-2), total daughter corm yield (2677.3 and 1582.9 g.m-2) were shown in 90 t/ha cow manure with bigger corm size ( 10.1-13 g) and 30 (control) t/ha cow manure with smaller corm size (4.1-7 g) treatments, respectively. In addition, the mean comparison of interaction effect in the second year showed that there were significant differences between most of treatments. The interaction effects of studied traits in the second year showed that 90 t/ha cow manure with bigger corm size (10.1-13 g) and 30 (control) t/ha cow manure with smaller corm size (4.1-7 g) treatments produced the highest and the lowest flower number (231.0 and 156.5 m-2), stigma dry weight (2.062 and 1.053 g.m-2), total number of daughter corms (1024.5 and 505.5 m-2) and total daughter corms yield (4486.6 and 2133.1 g.m-2), respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that by increasing the use of cow manure (more than 60 t/ha) and the use of more than 7 grams mother corms, it is possible to improve the number and yield of daughter corms and these traits will increase the saffron stigma yield in the next coming years.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry weight of corm
  • Number of flower
  • Number of daughter corm
  • Stigma yield
Alipoor Miandehi, Z., Mahmodi, S., Behdani, M.A., and Sayyari, M.H. 2014. Effect of manure, bio-and chemical fertilizers and corm size on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield and yield components. Journal of Saffron Research 1 (2): 73-84. (In Persian with English Summary).
Amiri, M.E. 2008. Impact of animal manures and chemical fertilizers on yield components of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science 4 (3): 274-279.
Amirnia, R., Bayat, M., and Tajbakhsh, M. 2014. Effects of nano fertilizer application and mother corm weight on flowering at some saffron (Crocus sativus L.) ecotypes. Turkish Journal of Field Crops 19 (2): 158-168.
Azizi-zehan, A., Kamgar-Haghighi, A.A., and Sepaskhah, A.R. 2008. Crop and pan coefficients for saffron in a semi-arid region of Iran. Journal of Arid Environments 72: 27-32.
Behnia, M.R., and Mokhtari, M. 2009. Effect of planting methods and corm density in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). 3rd International Symposium on Saffron. Forthcoming Challenges in Cultivation, Research and Economics. 20-23 May 2009, Korokos, Kozani, Greece.
De Juan, A., Moya, A., López, S., Botella, O., López, H., and Munoz, R. 2003. Influence of the corm size and the density of plantation in the yield and the quality of the production of corms of Crocus sativus L. ITEA 99: 169–180.
Ghorbani, M. 2006. The economics of saffron in Iran. II. International symposium on saffron biology and technology. Acta Horticulturae 739: 321–332.
Gresta, F., Avola, G., Lombardo, G.M., Siracusa, L., and Ruberto, G. 2009. Analysis of flowering, stigmas yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as affected by environmental conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 119 (3): 320-324.
Jalali-Heravi, M., Parastar, H., and Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, H. 2010. Self-modeling curve resolution techniques applied to comparative analysis of volatile components of Iranian saffron from different regions. Analytica Chimica Acta 662: 143–154.
Kafi, M., Rashed Mohassel, M.H., Koocheki, A., and Mollafilabi, A.  2002. Saffron, Production and Processing. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press. 276 p. (In Persian).
Koocheki, A., and Sabet Teimouri, M. 2014. Effect of age of farm, corm size and manure fertilizer treatments on morphological criteria of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under Mashhad conditions. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi) 27 (105): 148-157. (In Persian).
Koocheki, A.,  Karbasi, A., and  Seyyedi, M. 2017. Some reasons for saffron yield loss over the last 30 years period (Review Article). Journal of Saffron Agronomy and Technology 5 (2): 107-122. (In Persian).
Latifi, N., and Mashayekhi, K. 1996. Effect of corm weight on saffron flowering. In: Proceedings of 4th Congress on Cultivation and Plant Breeding of Iran, Technology University of Esfahan, Esfahan, Iran. (In Persian).
Lee, J. 2010. Effect of application methods of organic fertilizer on growth, soil chemical properties, and microbial densities in organic bulb onion production. Scientia Horticulture 124: 299–305.
Lundmark, M., Vaughan, H., and Lapointe, L. 2009. Low temperatures maximize growth of Crocus vernus (L.) Hill via changes in carbon partitioning and corm development. Journal of Experimental Botany 60: 2203–2213.
Mao, J., Olk, D.C., Fang, X., He, Z., and Schmidt-Rohr, K. 2008. Influence of animal manure application on the chemical structures of soil organic matter as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Geoderma 146: 353–362.
Ministry of Agriculture-Jihad. 2017. Communications and information technology center. Available at Web site http://amar.maj.ir/Portal/Home/Default.aspx?CategoryID=117564e0-507c-4565-9659-fbabfb4acb9b.
Molina, R.V., Valero, M., Navarro, Y., Guardiola, J.L., and Garcia-Luice, A. 2005. Temperature effects on flower formation in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Scientia Horticulture 103: 361-379.
Mollafilabi, A. 2004. Experimental findings of production and echo physiological aspects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Acta Horticulturae 650: 195-200.
Nasser, S., Nehvi, F.A., Samad, S., Iqbal, A.M., Niyaz, A., Gowhar, A.D., and Nagoo, S.H. 2012. Effects of organic and inorganic sources of fertilizers on growth and yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). In 4th International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology, Srinagar (Kashmir) (India), 22-25 October 2012. pp. 75.
Negbi, M. 1999. Saffron cultivation: past, present and future prospect. In: M.Negbi (ed.). Saffron: Crocus sativus L. Harwood Academic Publishers, Australia, pp. 1–18.
Poggi, L.M., Portela, J.A., Pontin, M.A., and Molina, R.V. 2009. Corm size and incubation effects on time to flowering and threads yield and quality, in saffron production in Argentina. 3th International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology, Kozani, Greece. 51 p.
Rees, A.R. 1988. Saffron- an expensive plant product. The Plantsman 9 (4): 210–217.
Renau-Morata, B., Nebauer, S.G, Sánchez, M., and Molina, R.V. 2012. Effect of corm size, water stress, and cultivation conditions on photosynthesis and biomass partitioning during the vegetative growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Industrial Crops and Products 39: 40–46.
Sabet Teimouri, M., Kafi, M., Avarseji, Z., and Orooji, K. 2010. The effect of drought stress, corm size and corm tunic saffron morpho-ecophysiological characteristics of saffron in greenhouse conditions. Agroecology Journal 2 (2): 323-335.
Sadeghi, B. 1993. Effect of corm weight on flowering of saffron. Iranian Research Organization for Scinece and Technology Center of Khorasan, Iran. 73 p. (In Persian).
Safinter, S.A. 2006. Saffron Guide. Barcelona, Spain.
Siracusa, L., Gresta, F., Avola, G., Lombardo, G.M., and Ruberto, G. 2010. Influence of corm provenance and environmental condition on yield and apocarotenoid profiles in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23: 394–400.
Tookalloo, M.R., Rashed Mohassel, M.H., and Mollafilabi, A., 2009. The effect of planting date, corm weight and gibbereins concentration on quantity and quality characteristics of saffron.3th International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology, Kozani, Greece. 51 p.
Turhan, H., Kahriman, F., Egesel, C.O., and Gul, M.K. 2007. The effects of different growing media on flowering and corm formation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 6 (20): 2328-2332.
Winterhalter, P., and Straubinger, M. 2000. Saffron renewed interest in an ancient spice. Food Reviews International 16: 39-59.