اثر کود‌های زیستی و نیتروژن بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گلبرگ زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، فیزیولوژی و اصلاح گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2017.92549.1246

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی صفات کمی و کیفی گلبرگ زعفران تحت تأثیر منابع مختلف نیتروژن، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1395-1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زنجان اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل، کود ازتوبارور-1 (حاوی ازتوباکتر وینلندی) در دو سطح (1/0 و2/0 درصد)، کود نیترو کارا (حاوی باکتری آزورایزوبیوم کائولینودا) در دو سطح (1 و 2 درصد)، ترکیب هر دو کود زیستی در چهار سطح {(1 درصد نیتروکارا + 1/0 درصد ازتوبارور-1)، (1 درصد نیتروکارا + 2/0 درصد ازتوبارور-1)، (2 درصد نیتروکارا + 1/0 درصد ازتوبارور-1)، (2 درصد نیتروکارا + 2/0 درصد ازتوبارور-1)}، یک سطح نیتروژن (40کیلوگرم در هکتار) و شاهد بودند. بررسی صفات نشان داد بالاترین عملکرد گلبرگ و کلاله خشک در کاربرد 2/0 درصد ازتوباکتر به­دست آمد. هم­چنین در تیمار 2 درصد آزورایزوبیوم بیشترین وزن خشک تک‌گل مشاهده شد. بالاترین میزان نیتروژن برگ و کلروفیل کل در تیمارهای 2/0 درصد ازتوباکتر و 40 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن به­دست آمد. هم­چنین بیشترین سطح برگ در تیمار 40 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن حاصل شد. در بررسی فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی مشخص گردید که بیشترین فنل و آنتوسیانین کل و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدان گلبرگ در تیمار ازتوباکتر 1/0 درصد و بالاترین میزان فلاونوئید در تیمار 1 درصد آزورایزوبیوم مشاهده شدند. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که کاربرد تیمار‌های استفاده شده سبب افزایش عملکرد گلبرگ زعفران شد و تیمار 2/0 درصد ازتوباکتر جهت افزایش عملکرد کمی و تیمار 1/0 درصد ازتوباکتر برای بالا بردن خواص آنتی‌اکسیدانی قابل توصیه می­باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of bio-fertilizers and nitrogen on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tepals in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azizollah Kheiry 1
  • Hajar Parsa 2
  • Mohsen Sani Khani 1
  • Farhang Razavi 1
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
2 MSc Student, Physiology and Medicinal Plants Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of different nitrogen sources on some quantitative and biochemical characteristics of Saffron Petals, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications on the Research Farm of University of Zanjan. The treatments were Azotobarvar-1 bio-fertilizer (containing free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii) with two levels (0.1 and 0.2 percent), Nitrokara (containing symbiotic and free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azorhizobium caulinodan) with two levels (1 and 2 percent) and combinations of both of them with four treatments (1percent Nitrokara + 0.1 percent Azotobarvar-1, 1 percent Nitrokara + 0.2 percent Azotobarvar-1, 2 percent Nitrokara + 0.1 percent Azotobarvar-1, 2 percent Nitrokara + 0.2 percent Azotobarvar-1) compared to control and one nitrogen level (40 kg/ha). The results showed that the highest yield of petals and stigma were obtained in 0.2 percent Azotobacter while the highest average dry flower weight resulted in 2 percent Azorhizobium treatment. The highest leaf nitrogen content and total chlorophyll were obtained in 0.2 percent Azotobacter and 40 kg/ha of nitrogen treatments. Also 40 Kg/ha nitrogen resulted in the highest leaf area. The highest antioxidant, total phenol and anthocyanin of tepal were achieved in 0.1 percent Azotobacter while the highest amount of flavonoid was observed in 1 percent Azorhizobium. The results showed that the application of all treatments increased yield of saffron petals. The 0.2 percent Azotobacter was the best treatment in terms of quantity of petal yield and 0.1 percent Azotobacter resulted in highest antioxidant content and therefore it can be recommended.


کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anthocyanin
  • Flavonoid
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Phenol
  • Chlorophyll
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