مقایسه تأثیر روش ها و سطوح آبیاری بر سطح برگ و تولید بنه دختری در گیاه زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

10.22048/jsat.2018.46986.1137

چکیده

به منظور مقایسه تأثیر روش­ها و سطوح آبیاری بر سطح برگ و تولید بنه دختری در گیاه زعفران آزمایشی در سال زراعی 93-1392 به­صورت اسپلیت­پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در منطقه جلگه­رخ تربت حیدریه اجرا شد. عامل اصلی شامل سه روش آبیاری (کرتی، قطره‌ای و بارانی) و عامل فرعی سه سطح آبیاری (100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی زعفران) بود. صفات مورد بررسی شامل وزن خشک، تعداد، قطر و طول برگ، وزن خشک، اندازه و تعداد بنه دختری و نیز وزن و طول غلاف بودند. نمونه­برداری­های آزمایش برای تعیین صفات برگ و غلاف در 10 اردیبهشت و برای تعیین صفات بنه در 10 خردادماه 93 انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد در تیمارهای روش آبیاری، بیشترین وزن خشک بنه، وزن برگ و غلاف، اندازه و تعداد بنه دختری، تعداد، قطر و طول برگ در روش آبیاری قطره‌ای مشاهده شد. همچنین بهترین عملکرد بنه نیز در روش آبیاری قطره‌ای و کمترین میزان این شاخص در روش آبیاری کرتی به­دست آمد، آبیاری زعفران به روش قطره‌ای باعث افزایش تعداد بنه­های دختری نسبت به دو روش بارانی و کرتی (به ترتیب 10 و 34 درصد) شد. اثر سطوح آبیاری نیز بر اغلب صفات مورد بررسی معنی­دار بود و بیشترین میزان عملکرد مربوط به سطح آبیاری 100 درصد و کمترین مقدار آن مربوط به تیمار تأمین 50 درصد نیاز آبی بود، کاهش آبیاری از سطح 100 به 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه، تعداد بنه­های دختری و وزن آ ن­ها را شدیداً کاهش داد (به ترتیب 62 و 86 درصد). در مجموع بیشترین سطح فتوسنتزی گیاه زعفران و نیز حداکثر تعداد کل و وزن کل بنه­های دختری در روش آبیاری قطره‌ای و در سطح تأمین 100 درصد نیاز آبی به­دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the effect of irrigation levels and methods on leaf area and replacement corm production of saffron (.Crocus sativus L)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Karimiferezgh 1
  • Mohammad Kafi 2
  • Ahmad Nezami 2
1 PhD student in Crop Physiology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
چکیده [English]

In order to compare the effect of irrigation levels and methods on leaf area and replacement corm production of saffron during 2013-2014 growing season, a split plot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications in the Jolgeh Rokh District, in 35 km Torbat Heydarie. The main plot basin irrigation, drip and sprinkler irrigation and sub plot was three levels of irrigation (100, 75 and 50 percent water requirement of saffron). The traits studied were including dry weight, number, diameter and length of leaf, dry weight, size and number of replacement corms, weight and length sheath. Sampling for determining the characteristics of leaf and sheath was done on April 30, and for corm it was done on May 31, 2014. The results showed that in the irrigation method treatments, the most dry weight of corm, leaf and sheath weight, size and number of replacement corm, number, diameter and length of leaf were observed in the case of drip irrigation. In addition, the best yield was observed in drip irrigation and the lowest amount was seen in basin irrigation. Saffron irrigation with the drip method resulted in an increase of the number of replacement corms compared to the sprinkler and basin methods (10 and 34 percent, respectively). The effect of irrigation levels was significant on some of the traits that were studied and the most yield was related to 100 percent irrigation level and the lowest one was in the 50 percent water requirement. Reducing irrigation from 100 to 50% crop water requirement severely reduced replacement corms number and their weight (62 and 86 percent, respectively). Consequently, the most photosynthesis level of Saffron and also the maximum amount of total number and total weight of replacement corms were obtained in the drip irrigation case and 100 percent irrigation level. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drip Irrigation
  • Sprinkler Irrigation
  • Basin irrigation
  • Corm
  • Water requirement

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