ارزیابی عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران تحت تأثیر وزن و عمق های مختلف کاشت بنه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه اگروتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار گروه اگروتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

10.22048/jsat.2018.93391.1250

چکیده

به‌منظور مطالعه‌ اثر وزن‌های مختلف بنه‌ مادری و عمق کاشت بر عملکرد گل و بنه‌ زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)، آزمایشی در دو سال زراعی 95-94 و 96-95 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل وزن‌های مختلف بنه مادری در چهار سطح 6-4، 8-1/6، 10-1/8 و 12-1/10 گرم و عمق کاشت بنه در سه سطح 10، 15 و 20 سانتی‌متر از سطح خاک بود. در سال اول عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و در سال دوم فقط عملکرد گل زعفران ثبت شد. نتایج آزمایش در هر دو سال نشان داد که اثر متقابل وزن بنه مادری و عمق کاشت بر اکثر صفات گل معنی‌دار بود. با توجه به نتایج، افزایش وزن بنه مادری و عمق کاشت باعث افزایش عملکرد گل، خامه وکلاله زعفران شد. بیش‌ترین عملکرد کلاله‌ خشک در سال اول و دوم )به ترتیب با میانگین 10/0 و 53/0 گرم در مترمربع( در تیمار وزن بنه 12-1/10 گرم و عمق کاشت 20 سانتی‌متر به دست آمد که نسبت به شاهد (وزن بنه 8-1/6 گرم و عمق کاشت 20 سانتی‌متر) به­ترتیب 86 و 35 درصد افزایش نشان داد. اثر متقابل تیمارها بر عملکرد بنه‌های دختری معنی‌دار نبود اما اثر ساده‌ی هر یک از این تیمارها تأثیر معنی‌داری بر این صفت داشتند. بیش‌ترین عملکرد بنه با میانگین 60/1181 گرم در مترمربع مربوط به تیمار وزن بنه 12-1/10 گرم بود و در بین تیمارهای عمق کاشت این مقدار با میانگین 96/938 گرم متعلق به عمق کاشت 20 سانتی‌متر بود. در نهایت با توجه به برتری محسوس عملکرد در تیمارهای وزن بنه و عمق کاشت بالاتر در این طرح، جهت زراعت زعفران بنه­هایی با گروه وزنی بالاتر و عمق کاشت عمیق تر توصیه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of saffron flower and corm yield affected by different maternal corm weight and sowing depth

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Razavian 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Ghorban Ali Asadi 3
1 M.Sc. of Agroecology, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of different weights of mother corm and sowing depth on flower and corm yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), an experiment was conducted as a factorial layout based on complete randomized block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2015-2016 growing seasons. The experimental treatments were all combination of four mother corm weights (4-6, 6.1-8, 8.1-10 and 10.1-12 g) and three planting depths (10, 15 and 20 cm). In the first year, criteria such as flower and corms yield were evaluated, and in the second year only flower yield were recorded. The result revealed that in both years the interaction between corm weight and planting depths was significant on most traits of the studied flower. Flower, stigma and style yield significantly increased by increasing corm weight and planting depth. The maximum dry stigma yield was obtained in 10.1-12 g corm weight and 20 cm planting depth which was 0.1095 and 0.5393 g.m-2 in the first and the second year, respectively. The interaction between treatments was not significant on daughter corm but the individual effects of each treatment was significant. The higher corm yield (1181.6 g.m-2) was related to 10.1-12 g corm weight treatment. Deeper planting (20 cm) produced the high corm yield (938.86 g.m-2). Eventually, the high excellence of yield in corm weight and planting depth treatments of higher, we recommend corms with higher weight and deeper sowing depth for cultivating saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Daughter corms
  • Dry stigma
  • Dry style
  • Mother corms

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