نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار گروه کشاورزی مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی واکنش گیاه دارویی زعفران به تراکم کاشت و سطوح مختلف کود دامی آزمایشی دو ساله به صورت اسپلیت پلات و در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال های زراعی 95-1394 و 96-1395 در منطقه گناباد اجرا شد. عامل اصلی شامل فواصل روی ردیف 5، 10، و 15 سانتی متر و عامل فرعی بصورت شاهد (عدم مصرف کود)، و کاربرد 20، 40، و 60 تن در هکتار کود گاوی بود. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد حداکثر عملکرد گل تر در سال اول (4/127 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از کاربرد 60 تن در هکتار و در سال دوم (3/72 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از مصرف 40 تن در هکتار کود گاوی تحت تراکم کاشت 5 سانتی متر روی ردیف بدست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد کلاله تر در هر دو سال آزمایش (به ترتیب با مقادیر 300/10 و 383/5 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در اثر کاشت پرتراکم (فاصله روی ردیف 5 سانتی متر) و اعمال 40 تن در هکتار کود گاوی حاصل شد. عملکرد کلاله خشک نیز در نتیجه تأثیر همین تیمار به ترتیب با مقادیر 300/2 و 770/1 کیلوگرم در هکتار در دو سال آزمایش افزایش بیشتری در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها نشان داد. بالاترین تعداد بنه خواهری در هر دو سال آزمایش (به ترتیب 614 و 591 بنه در متر مربع) از کشت با بیشترین تراکم بنه حاصل شد. در سال اول، تیمار 40 تن در هکتار کود دامی بیشترین مقادیر (592 بنه در متر مربع) را داشته و در سال دوم، تیمار 60 تن در هکتار بالاترین مقادیر (572 بنه در متر مربع) را نشان داد. بیشترین عملکرد بنه در سال اول با میانگین 22724 کیلوگرم در هکتار از فاصله روی ردیف 5 سانتی متر و اعمال 40 تن در هکتار کود دامی حاصل شد. اما در سال دوم بیشترین میانگین (12429 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از همین تراکم کاشت و مصرف 60 تن در هکتار کود دامی بدست آمد. بنابراین، برای دستیابی به عملکرد اقتصادی مناسب در زراعت زعفران، کاربرد 40 تن در هکتار کود گاوی در تراکم کاشت 5×20 سانتی متر در شرایط اقلیمی و خاکی مشابه با محل این آزمایش پیشنهاد می گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation the effect of manure and planting pattern on some flower and corm quantitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Gonabad climatic conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yaser Esmaeilian
  • Mohammad Behzad Amiri

Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran

چکیده [English]

In order to study the response of saffron medicinal plant to planting density and different levels of manure, a two year experiment was conducted in split-plot as complete block design with three replications in 2015-16 and 2016-2017 in Gonabad area. Main factor consisted of 5, 10, and 15 cm plant spacing on row and sub factor was control (no manure application), and application of 0, 20, 40, and 60 t/ha cow manure. Experiment results showed that maximum value of fresh flower yield in first year (127.4 kg/ha) achieved in 60 t/ha and in second year (72.3 kg/ha) obtained from 40 t/ha manure application under 5 cm plant spacing in row. The highest fresh stigma yield in both years (10.300 and 5.383 kg/ha, respectively) was obtained due to high planting density (5 cm plant spacing in row) and 40 t/ha manure application. Also, dry stigma yield under this treatment with 2.300 and 1.770 kg/ha, respectively had more increase in both years than other treatments. The highest daughter corm number in both years (614 and 591 corm/m2, respectively) obtained from highest corm planting density. In first year, 40 t/ha manure treatment had the highest value (592 corm/m2) and in second year, 60 t/ha manure application showed the highest value (572 corm/m2). In first year, the highest corm yield with 22724 kg/ha achieved from 5 cm plant spacing in row and 40 t/ha manure. But, in second year the highest mean value (12429 kg/ha) obtained from the same planting density and use of 60 t/ha manure. Therefore, to achieve suitable economic yield in saffron cultivation, application of 40 t/ha cow manure in 20×5 cm planting density under climatic and edaphic conditions similar to this experiment location is suggested.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Density
  • Cow manure
  • Environmental Factors
  • Stigma
  • Yield
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