تأثیر پرایمینگ بنه با اسید سالیسیلیک و وزن بنه مادری بر گلدهی و خصوصیات کیفی کلاله زعفران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، تهران

3 استادیار گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2018.96404.1254

چکیده

اسید سالیسیلیک یکی از هورمون های گیاهی است که نقش محوری در تنظیم رشد و فرآیندهای فیزیولوژیکی گیاهان ایفا می‌کند. به منظور مطالعه تأثیر هورمون اسید سالیسیلیک و وزن بنه مادری بر گل دهی زعفران، آزمایشی در سال 96- 95 به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی زعفران پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل پیش تیمار بنه با هورمون اسید سالیسیلیک (شاهد و کاربرد با غلظت 1 و 2 میلی مولار) و وزن بنه مادری شامل بنه‌های ریز با وزن (3 تا 5 گرم) و بنه های درشت با وزن (5 تا 8 گرم) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر وزن بنه مادری بر صفات عملکردی شامل وزن تر گل، طول گل، وزن تر کلاله، وزن تر مادگی، طول کلاله، طول مادگی و بر صفات کیفی کلاله شامل میزان کروسین، پیکروکروسین و سافرانال معنی دار بود. مقدار این صفات در شرایط استفاده از بنه های مادری درشت نسبت به بنه ریز بیشتر بود. اثر وزن بنه مادری بر صفت وزن خشک کلاله در این پژوهش معنی دار نبود. هرچند اثر متقابل اسید سالیسیلیک و وزن بنه مادری بر صفات مورد بررسی معنی دار نبود، اما نتایج مقایسه میانگین ها نشان داد تیمار پرایمینگ بنه با غلظت 2 میلی مولار اسید سالیسیلیک بیشترین وزن تر گل (99.5 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، وزن خشک کلاله (1.45 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کمترین زمان تا سبز شدن (47 روز پس از کاشت) را منجر شد. همچنین بیشترین میزان ماده مؤثره پیکروکروسین، مربوط به تیمار پرایمینگ بنه با غلظت 1 میلی مولار اسید سالیسیلیک بود. میزان کروسین در تیمار پرایمینگ بنه با غلظت 2 میلی مولار اسید سالیسیلیک و میزان سافرانال در سطح 1 میلی مولار بیشتر بود. به طور کلی نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که کاشت بنه های مادری درشت همراه با کاربرد اسید سالیسیلیک باعث بهبود برخی خصوصیات کمی و کیفی کلاله زعفران گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of corm priming with salicylic acid and mother corm weight on flowering and qualitative characteristics of saffron stigma

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shirin Ansaryan Mahabadi 1
  • Iraj Allah dadi 2
  • Majid Ghorbani Javid 3
  • Elias Soltani 3
1 MSc Student in Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Crop Sciences and Plant Breeding, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Salicylic acid as a plant hormone plays an important role in regulating growth and physiological processes in plant. In order to study the effects of salicylic acid hormone and mother corm weight on saffron flowering properties, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the saffron research field of College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran during 2016-2017. The first factor consist of salicylic acid in three levels (Normal, priming with 1 and 2 mM concentrations (and second factor was weight of corm in two level that consist of small corm (3-5 gr) and large corm (8-10 gr). The results showed that the effect of corm weight on fresh weight of flower, Length of flower, fresh weight of stigma, length of stigma, fresh weight of pistil, length of pistil and qualitative characteristics of stigma were significant. The amount of these traits was higher in terms of the use of large mother’s corms. The effect of corm weight on dry weight of stigma was not significant. Interaction between salicylic acid and corm weight on all traits was not significant but the results of mean comparisons showed that the highest amount of fresh weight of flower (99.5 kg/ha), dry weight of stigma (1.45 kg/ha) and lowest days to emergence was 47 days after planting that related to salicylic acid in 2 mM. More amount of picrocrocin as a saffron flavor was related to salicylic acid in 1 mM. Crocin percentage in the priming treatment with 2 mM salicylic acid was higher than the other two levels; amount of safranal was high at 1mM. Totally, results of this experiment indicated that planting large mother’s corms with salicylic acid led to improvement of some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of saffron stigma.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corm
  • Crocin
  • Flowering
  • Picrocrocin
  • Plant hormone
  • Safranal
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