بررسی خصوصیات کمی گل و بنه زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) تحت تاثیر سیستم‌های تغذیه آلی، ‏بیولوژیکی و شیمیایی در منطقه گناباد

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار گروه کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد، گناباد، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2018.109086.1273

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی واکنش گیاه زعفران به کودهای مختلف دامی، زیستی و شیمیایی آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح ‏بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی جهاد کشاورزی گناباد طی سال های زراعی 95-1394 و 96-1395 صورت گرفت. ‏عامل اصلی بصورت کاربرد کود گاوی به میزان 60 تن در هکتار و عدم مصرف کود و عامل فرعی متشکل از تیمارهای: شاهد (عدم مصرف ‏کود)، نیتروکسین (5 لیتر در هکتار)، بیوفسفر (3 لیتر در هکتار)، بیوسولفور (5 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، اسید هیومیک (10 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و ‏کود شیمیایی (به ترتیب 150، 100 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منابع اوره، سوپر فسفات تریپل و سولفات پتاسیم) بود. نتایج آزمایش ‏مشخص کرد اثر متقابل تیمارهای کود گاوی و کودهای بیولوژیکی و شیمیایی بر صفات عملکرد گل تر، کلاله تر و کلاله خشک معنی دار ‏بود. بیشترین عملکرد گل تر (181 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از اعمال کود بیوفسفر همراه با مصرف 60 تن در هکتار کود گاوی حاصل شد. ‏عملکرد کلاله تر در تیمار کود شیمیایی تحت شرایط مصرف کود گاوی بیشترین افزایش (میانگین عملکرد 10405 گرم در متر مربع) را ‏نشان داد. درحالی که عملکرد کلاله خشک درنتیجه مصرف بیوفسفر حداکثر مقادیر (5351 گرم در هکتار) را حاصل کرد. اثر کود گاوی بر ‏صفات بنه معنی دار شد. تعداد بنه در واحد سطح و عملکرد بنه افزایش 19 درصدی را در اثر مصرف کود گاوی نسبت به تیمار شاهد در سال ‏دوم نشان دادند. در بین تیمارهای کود بیولوژیکی و شیمیایی، بیشترین تعداد بنه (440 بنه در متر مربع) و عملکرد بنه (4401 کیلوگرم در ‏متر مربع) درنتیجه اعمال کود بیوفسفر بدست آمد. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده، مصرف کود دامی توصیه شده بصورت تلفیقی همراه با ‏کودهای بیولوژیکی بخصوص کود بیوفسفر در شرایط اقلیمی و خاکی مشابه با محل این آزمایش توصیه می گردد.‏

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of flower and corm quantitative characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) ‎under organic, biological, and chemical nutrition systems in Gonabad area

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Behzad Amiri
  • Yaser Esmaeilian
Assistant professor, Department of Agriculture, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluation the response of saffron to different manure, biological and chemical fertilizers, an ‎experiment was carried out as split-plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications in ‎Research Farm of Gonabad Agriculture Jihad during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 growing seasons. Main factor ‎was 60 t/ha manure, and no manure application, and sub factor concluded of control (no fertilizer use), nitroxin ‎‎(5 L/ha), biophosphorus (3 L/ha), biosulphur (5 kg/ha), humic acid (10 kg/ha), and chemical fertilizer (150, 100, ‎and 100 kg/ha urea, triple superphosphate, and potassium sulfate). Experiment results indicated that interaction ‎effect of manure and biological and chemical fertilizers on fresh flower yield, fresh and dry stigma yield was ‎significant. The highest fresh flower yield (181 kg/ha) achieved by biophosphorus along with application of 60 ‎t/ha manure. Fresh stigma yield in chemical fertilizer under manure application treatment showed the highest ‎increase (mean yield of 10405 g/ha). While, dry stigma yield due to biophosphorus application obtained the ‎highest value (5351 g/ha). The effect of manure on corm traits was significant. Corm number per unit area and ‎corm yield showed 19% increase in second year due to manure application than control. Among biological and ‎chemical fertilizer treatments, the highest value of corm number (440 corm/m2) and corm yield (4401 kg/m2) ‎was obtained due to biophosphorus application. Based on obtained results, combined application of ‎recommend manure with biological fertilizers especially biophosphorus under climatic and edaphic conditions ‎similar to this experiment area is recommended. ‎

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biophosphorus
  • Biosulphur
  • Himic acid
  • Manure
  • Nitroxin
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