نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد تولیدات گیاهی، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

2 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

3 استادیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر زمان قطع آخرین آبیاری و منابع مختلف کودی بر ویژگی­های کمی و کیفی گل زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)، آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپیلت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه‌ چهار ‌ساله تحقیقاتی جهاد کشاورزی واقع در روستای لاله‌زار، شهرستان بردسیر، استان کرمان در سال 95-1394 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل زمان قطع آخرین آبیاری (15 روز قبل از زمان عرف منطقه (اول اردیبهشت)، عرف (15 اردیبهشت) و 15 روز بعد از عرف (2 خرداد) به عنوان عامل اصلی و منابع مختلف کودی (کود گاوی 40 تن در هکتار، کود مرغی 15 تن در هکتار، ورمی کمپوست 10 تن در هکتار، اسید هیومیک 2 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کود شیمیایی شامل 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره و 140 کیلوگرم در هکتار فسفر و پتاسیم) به عنوان عامل فرعی بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تأثیر تیمار قطع آبیاری بر خصوصیات کمی گل معنی­دار بود، ولی ویژگی­های کیفی تحت تأثیر این تیمار قرار نگرفت. نتایج نشان داد که تأخیر در قطع آبیاری منجر به کاهش معنی­دار صفات کمی شد. بطوریکه، بیشترین تعداد گل (10/41 عدد در متر مربع)، عملکرد تر (6/145 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و خشک (41/19 کیلوگرم در هکتار) گل، وزن تر (12/11 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و خشک (02/2 کیلوگرم در هکتار) کلاله در تیمار قطع زود هنگام  آبیاری (قبل از عرف) حاصل شد. تأثیر منابع کودی نیز بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی به استثنای میزان پیکروکروسین و سافرانال معنی­دار بود. کودهای ورمی کمپوست و کود دامی بطور معنی‏داری در کلیه تیمارهای آبیاری، تعداد گل و عملکرد کلاله بیشتری را نسبت به دیگر تیمارها تولید نمودند. عملکرد کلاله خشک در تیمارهای کود شیمیایی (91/1 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، مرغی (57/1 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و اسید هیومیک (42/1 کیلوگرم در هکتار) نیز بطور معنی­داری بیشتر از شاهد (26/1 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. بیشترین (7/169 نانومتر) و کمترین (1/163 نانومتر) میزان کروسین به ترتیب در تیمارهای شاهد و ورمی کمپوست حاصل شد. بطورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که قطع آبیاری در اوایل اردیبهشت و استفاده از کود آلی ورمی کمپوست بهترین شرایط را برای زراعت زعفران در منطقه بردسیر کرمان دارا بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Saffron flower to the last irrigation cut-off time and various fertilizer resources

نویسندگان [English]

  • Anis Rezaei 1
  • Hassan Feizi 2
  • Rohollah Moradi 3

1 MSc Student, Department of Plant Productions, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Torbat Heydariye, Iran

2 Assistance Professor, Department of Plant Production, Saffron Institute Researcher, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Torbat Heydarieh, Iran

3 Assistance Professor, Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of last irrigation cut-off time and various fertilizer resources on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) flower, an experiment was conducted in a split-plot arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications and 18 treatments in a four year research farm of Jihad ministry located in Lalezar village, Bardsir region, Kerman province, in 2015-2016. The experimental treatments were irrigation cut-off time (conventional time (5 May), 15 days before the conventional time (20 April) and 15 days after conventional time (20 May)) assigned to the main plot, and nutritional resources (cow manure 40 t ha-1, hen manure15 t.ha-1, vermicompost 10 t ha-1, humic acid 2 kg ha-1, and chemical fertilizer containing 200 kg ha-1 urea and 140 kg.ha-1 P and K) as subplot. The analysis of variance results showed that the effect of irrigation cut-off treatment was significant on all the quantitative traits, but the treatment had no significant effect on qualitative traits of flower. The results showed that the delay in irrigation cut-off led to a significant decrease in other traits. As, the highest number of flowers (41.10 in m-2), fresh (145.16 kg.ha-1) and dry (19.41 kg.ha-1) weight of flower, fresh (11.12 kg.ha-1) and dry (2.02 kg.ha-1) weight of stigma were found in the earlier irrigation cut-off treatment (before the conventional time). The effect of fertilizer resources on all the studied traits was significant except for the values of picrocrocin and safranal. In all the irrigation treatments, vermicompost and cow manure significantly produced higher flower number and stigma yield than other fertilizer treatments. Dry stigma yield in chemical fertilizer (1.91 kg.ha-1), hen manure (1. 57 kg.ha-1) and humic acid (1.42 kg.ha-1) was significantly higher than control (1.26 kg.ha-1). The highest (169.7 nm) and lowest (163.1 nm) amount of crocin were obtained in control and vermicompost treatments, respectively. In general, the results showed that irrigation cut-off in April with using vermicompost fertilizer had the best conditions for saffron cultivation in the Bardsir region of Kerman.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conventional irrigation
  • Crocin
  • Picrocrocin
  • Safranal
  • Stigma
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