برآورد هزینه‌های زیست‌محیطی انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای در مزارع زعفران (مطالعه موردی شهرستان تربت‌حیدریه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو کارشناسی ارشد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استادیار گروه آمار، دانشگاه میامی، ایالات متحده آمریکا

10.22048/jsat.2018.101427.1264

چکیده

تولید زعفران به‌عنوان یکی از گران‌قیمت‌ترین محصول کشاورزی و دارویی جهان، دارای مزیت نسبی بالایی می‌باشد. با توجه به اهمیت تولید این محصول در ایران به‌عنوان یک کالای مهم صادراتی غیرنفتی و راهبردی، برآورد هزینه‌های غیرمستقیم زیست‌محیطی مربوط به انتشار گازهای آلاینده آن ضروری است. هدف از این مطالعه محاسبه برآورد هزینه‌های زیست‌محیطی انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای در مزارع زعفران در شهرستان تربت‌حیدریه بود. در این پژوهش برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها (همچون کودهای شیمایی، آبیاری، نیروی کار، کود حیوانی و سوخت فسیلی) از پرسشنامه و مصاحبه حضوری در سال زراعی 1397-1396 استفاده شد. برای بررسی رابطه بین ستانده خوب و بد از تابع فاصله که به‌صورت فرم ترانسلوگ که پارامتریک می‌باشد استفاده گردید. نتایج نشان داد که مقدار پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی (GWP) 24/369 کیلوگرم معادل  به ازای یک کیلو‌گرم کلاله زعفران محاسبه شد. هزینه زیست‌محیطی گازهای گلخانه‌ای متان، اکسید نیتروژن و دی‌اکسید کربن در یک هکتار با توجه به یک دوره هفت‌ساله به ترتیب 700/888/77، 820/742/212 و 200/289/76 ریال برآورد شد. درمجموع تولید زعفران هزینه‌ای معادل 720/920/366 میلیون ریال بابت انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای در یک دوره هفت‌ساله خسارت به محیط‌زیست وارد می‌کند. این میزان برای یک سال زراعی برای یک هکتار معادل با 240/417/52 میلیون ریال است. حدود 21% از درآمد به‌دست‌آمده در هکتار است. در پایان پیشنهاد می‌گردد برای کاهش اثرات زیست‌محیطی نظام تولید زعفران سیاست‌های مالیات بر کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمایی و نظام‌های خاک‌ورزی کاهش‌یافته موردبررسی و تحلیل قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimating environmental costs of greenhouse gas emissions in saffron production systems (case study: Torbat Hadiriyah)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Nezamoleslami 1
  • Lili Abolhassani 2
  • Naser Shahnoushi 3
  • Alireza Karbasi 3
  • Dariush Khezrimotlagh 4
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Miami University, United States of America.
چکیده [English]

The production of saffron as one of the most expensive agricultural and pharmaceutical products in the world has a high comparative advantage. Considering the importance of producing this product in Iran as an important non-oil export commodity and its role as a strategic, the estimation of the indirect environmental costs associated with the emission of its pollutants is necessary. The purpose of this study was to calculate the environmental costs of greenhouse gas emissions in Saffron farms in the Torbat Hadiriyah township. In order to collect  data (such as chemical fertilizers, irrigation, labor, animal manure and gasoline) a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews were used in the crop years 2017 and 2018.To investigate the relationship between good and bad output, the distance function is used as a parametric form of the translog. The results show that global warming potential (GWP) was calculated to be 369/24 kg equivalent to CO2 per kilogram of saffron straw. Also the environmental cost of greenhouse gases, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide per hectare, according to a seven-year period, are: 77/888/700, 212/742/820 and 76/289/200 Rials, respectively. In total, the production of saffron over a seven-year period imposes an expense of 366/920/720 million Rials on the environment regarding the emission of greenhouse gases. This is equal to 52/417/240 million Rials for a crop year in per one hectare. About 21% of the income earned per hectare. In the end, it is suggested that the tax policy on fertilizers and soil tillage systems be reviewed and analyzed to reduce the environmental impacts of the saffron production system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Distance function
  • Global warming potential
  • Translog

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