تأثیر کود گاوی بر عملکرد و خصوصیات مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک زعفران تحت تنش شوری (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران

4 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه، خراسان رضوی، ایران

5 استادیار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد نیشابور، خراسان رضوی، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2018.98710.1257

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه اثرات تنش شوری آب آبیاری و مقادیر مختلف کود گاوی بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)، آزمایشی در منطقه جلگه رخ تربت حیدریه (در مزرعه­ای که دومین سال کشت آن بود) در سال 1394 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل چهار سطح شوری آب آبیاری به عنوان عامل اصلی (1 (تیمار شاهد)، 4، 7 و 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر) و مقادیر کود گاوی (عامل فرعی) در چهار سطح شامل شاهد (بدون کود)،20، 40 و 60 تن در هکتار بودند که به صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. صفات مورد بررسی شامل تعداد و وزن تر گل، وزن خشک کلاله، میزان کلروفیل برگ، محتوی پرولین برگ، قطر، وزن تر و خشک بنه بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثرات مقادیر مختلف کود گاوی و سطوح تنش شوری بر کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه در سطح یک درصد معنی­دار بود. بیشترین تعداد گل، عملکرد گل و وزن خشک کلاله در تیمار شوری شاهد (یک دسی زیمنس بر متر) و مصرف 60 تن در هکتار کود گاوی بدست آمد. با افزایش سطوح شوری تا 7 دسی زیمنس بر متر، میزان کلروفیل a، b و کل افزایش و پس از آن به شدت کاهش یافت به طوری­که این میزان کاهش در تیمار شوری 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب 6/6، 9/16 و 12 درصد بود. نتایج حاکی از افزایش معنی­دار پرولین (2/14 درصد) در سطوح شوری 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر نسبت به شاهد بود. علاوه بر این قطر، وزن تر و خشک بنه نیز با افزایش سطوح شوری کاهش یافت به طوریکه میزان کاهش در تیمار شوری 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب 5/13، 5/32 و 6/32 درصد بود. به طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از کود گاوی باعث کاهش اثرات مخرب تنش شوری بر عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of cow manure on yield and morphological and physiological characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under salinity stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Asghari 1
  • Mohammadreza Dadashi 2
  • alireza razavi 3
  • Hassan Feizi 4
  • saed bakhtiari 5
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Seed and Plant Improvement Recearch Departement, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Agricultural Research,Education & Extension organization,mashhad,Iran
4 Assistant Professor Crop Ecology Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resource University of TorbatHeydarieh, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of salinity stress of irrigation water and different amounts of cow manure on morphological and physiological characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), an experiment was conducted during 2015-16 in the Jalagh Rokh Torbat Heidarieh area. The treatments were consisted of four levels of irrigation water salinity as the main factor (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS.m-1) and cow manure (sub factor) in four levels including control (without fertilizer), 20, 40 and 60 (t.ha-1) that were split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The studied traits included fresh weight and numbers of flowers, fresh and dry weights of stigma, leaf chlorophyll content, proline content, diameter, fresh and dry weights of corm. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effects of different amounts of cow manure and salinity stress levels on all traits were significant at 1% level. In this experiment, the highest fresh weight and numbers of flowers, fresh and dry weight of the stigma were obtained in the control salinity treatment (without salinity) and 60 (t.ha-1) of cow manure. With increasing salinity levels up to 7 dS.m-1, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll increased and then decreased sharply. The results showed a significant increase in proline with increasing salinity levels. In addition, diameter and fresh and dry weights of the corms decreased with increasing salinity levels, so that their maximum and minimum values ​​were obtained in salinity control (without salinity) and 10 dS.m-1 respectively. The results showed that the use of cow manure reduces the effects of salinity stress on corm yield and yield of saffron flower.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flower yield
  • Corm yield
  • Proline content
  • Chlorophyll content
  • Stigma

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