مقایسه میزان مصرف نهاده‌های کود و سم در سیستم های تولید زعفران و گندم در شهرستان قائنات

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌ آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند و دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 دانشیار اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند.

3 استادیار اقتصاد کشاوری دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

تجاری شدن فعالیت‌های کشاورزی و به دنبال آن استفاده گسترده از سموم و کودهای شیمیایی در تولید محصولات کشاورزی باعث ایجاد مشکلات جدی در محیط ‌زیست شده ‌است. با توجه به این مسئله و به‌منظور ارزیابی میزان نهاده‌های مصرفی کود و سم در زراعت گندم و زعفران، مطالعه‌ای در شهرستان قائنات واقع در خراسان جنوبی در سال زراعی 91-1390 انجام شد که در آن 50 مزرعه گندم و 48 مزرعه زعفران مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند.نتایج نشان داد که میانگین مصرف کود نیتروژن در بین دو محصول گندم و زعفران به ترتیب 4/222 و 8/57 کیلوگرم در هکتار بوده و این دو محصول از این نظر دارای تفاوت معنی‌داری می‌باشند. هم‌چنین برخلاف محصول گندم، کاربرد سموم شیمیایی در تولید محصول زعفران بسیار ناچیز بوده و در بسیاری از مزارع اصلاً مصرف نمی‌شوند. لذا با توجه به نتایج مذکور می‌توان زعفران را یک محصول سالم‌تر و دارای پتانسیل بیشتری برای تولید ارگانیک قلمداد نمود. هم‌چنین مقادیر مصرف کود نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاس در محصول گندم در منطقه به‌طور معنی‌داری کمتر از مقادیر توصیه‌شده آن می‌باشد. ولی در محصول زعفران بین مقادیر مصرفی و توصیه‌شده تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده نگردید. لذا به نظر می‌رسد انجام آزمایش‌های تجزیه خاک در هر منطقه و ارائه فرمول‌های مناسب کود و خدمات ترویجی-آموزشی لازم در این خصوص و بالا بردن سطح آگاهی عمومی یک راهکار مناسب جهت کاهش مصرف نهاده‌های شیمیایی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of chemical inputs consumption in saffron and wheat fields in Qaenat region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Yaghoubi 1
  • Majid Jami Al-Ahmadi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Bakhshi 3
  • Mohammad Hassan Sayyari Zahan 3
1 Graduated M.Sc. Student of Agroecology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, and Ph.D. Student of Crop Ecology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, University of Birjand, Iran
3 Assistant Professors, University of Birjand, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Commercialization of agricultural operations and use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in agricultural production has been created serious environmental impacts. Due to this issue and in order to assess the amount of chemical fertilizer and pesticide inputs in saffron and wheat production systems, a study was conducted in Qaenat region (South Khorasan province), 50 wheat fields and 48 saffron fields were investigated during 2011-12. The results showed that average nitrogen fertilizer consumption was 222.38 and 57.83 kg.ha-1 in wheat and saffron production systems, respectively, which from sstatistically point of view the difference was significant. In addition, unlike wheat, the use of pesticides very low in saffron cultivation and in many saffron farms it was zero. Therefore, the results can be considered saffron is an healthier product and have greater potential to organic product. Also, the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers which were using in wheat in the study area were significantly different with recommended values. While in saffron production there was no significant difference between the values of consumed and recommended. Therefore, it seems, performing soil testing in each region and providing appropriate fertilizer formulas and required promotional-educational services in this regard, and raising public awareness is a good strategy for reducing the use of chemical inputs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural inputs
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Sustainability indicators

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