بررسی عوامل اثرگذار بر مصرف کودهای شیمیایی در مزارع زعفران (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان گناباد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشجوی دکتری گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

10.22048/jsat.2018.120688.1289

چکیده

یکی از مهم‌ترین محصولات تولیدی و صادراتی کشاورزی ایران زعفران است که تولید آن منبع اصلی درآمد بسیاری از مناطق روستایی در شرق کشور به­شمار می‌آید. با این وجود، عملکرد مزارع زعفران طی سال‌های 1394-1350 حدود 36 درصد کاهش یافته است. شهرستان گناباد در استان خراسان رضوی به­عنوان یکی از بزرگترین تولیدکنندگان زعفران در ایران نیز با این مشکل مواجه است. شواهد و بررسی‌های میدانی گویای این است که استفاده‌ زیاد از نهاده‌های شیمیایی به خصوص کودهای شیمیایی می‌تواند به­عنوان یکی از عوامل اصلی این کاهش عملکرد مطرح باشد. بنابراین هدف مطالعه‌ حاضر بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر مصرف کودهای شیمیایی با تأکید بر نقش نگرش و آگاهی زعفران‌کاران است. برای دستیابی به اهداف پژوهش، تعداد 105 پرسش­نامه بر اساس روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی نسبی تکمیل و از الگوی لاجیت ترتیبی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که دو متغیر نگرش زعفران‌کاران نسبت به کشاورزی پایدار و آگاهی نسبت به عوامل کاهش‌دهنده عملکرد اثر منفی و معنی‌داری بر احتمال استفاده‌ کشاورزان از کود شیمیایی دارد. در حالی که متغیرهای درآمد کشاورزان، سن، سطح تحصیلات و بیمه کشاورزی اثر مثبت و معنی‌داری بر احتمال استفاده از کود شیمیایی توسط کشاورزان دارند. بنابراین اتخاذ سیاست‌های مناسب به منظور بهبود نگرش کشاورزان نسبت به فعالیت‌های کشاورزی پایدار و افزایش آگاهی زعفران‌کاران از آثار منفی و بلندمدت استفاده‌ بی‌رویه کودهای شیمیایی، جلب اعتماد کشاورزان معتمد و با تجربه برای کاهش استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی و تجدید نظر در محتوای کلاس‌های آموزشی و ترویجی نقش تعیین‌کننده‌ای در بهبود الگوی مصرفی کشاورزان از کود شیمیایی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Effective Factors on Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Saffron Farms (Case study: Gonabad County)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arash Dourandish 1
  • Mohammadreza Ramezani 2
  • Milad Aminizadeh 2
1 Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Ph.D. Student of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
چکیده [English]

Saffron is one of the most important agricultural and export products whose production is the main source of income in many rural areas in east of the country. However, the yield of saffron farms decreased by almost 36% during 1971-2015. The Gonabad county in the Khorasan Razavi province as one of the largest saffron producers in Iran also faces this problem. Evidences suggest that the high use of chemical inputs, especially chemical fertilizers, can be considered as one of the main causes of yield decrease. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effective factors on use of chemical fertilizers with an emphasis on the role of attitude and awareness of saffron producers. In order to achieve the research objectives, 105 questionnaires were completed based on proportional random sampling and an ordered logit model was carried out. The results showed that two variables of farmers’ attitude towards sustainable agriculture and awareness about yield-reducing factors have negative and significant effects on the probability of chemical fertilizer use. While the variables of farmers’ income, age, education and agricultural insurance have positive and significant effect on the probability of chemical fertilizer use. Therefore, undertaking appropriate policies in order to boost farmers’ attitude towards sustainable agricultural practices and increase the awareness of farmers about the negative and long-term effects of excessive use of chemical fertilizers, encouraging trusted and experienced farmers to reduce the use of fertilizers and reconsidering the content of training courses have a decisive role in enhancing the pattern of chemical fertilizers use.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Reduction in yield
  • External inputs
  • Unsustainable system
  • Ordered logit
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