اثر مقدار و زمان کاربرد مالچ بقایای گندم بر گلدهی و خصوصیات مرفولوژیکی بنه‌های دختری زعفران Crocus sativus L

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اگروتکنولوژی، گرایش اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 عضو هیات علمی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

10.22048/jsat.2018.115772.1280

چکیده

 به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر زمان پخش و مقادیر کاربرد کاه و کلش گندم بر عملکرد گل و بنه گیاه دارویی زعفران آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­­های­کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گناباد وابسته به مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی (بخش زعفران و گیاهان دارویی) در دو سال زراعی 95-94 و 96-95 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل مقدار کاربرد کلش گندم (2، 4، 6 و 8 تن در هکتار) و زمان کاربرد کلش گندم (اول خردادماه، 15تیرماه و اول شهریورماه به‌صورت پخش سطحی) بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس حاکی از تأثیر معنی­دار زمان پخش مالچ کلش گندم، مقادیر کاربرد مالچ و نیز اثر متقابل آن­ها بر تمامی شاخص­های گلدهی زعفران در سطح یک درصد بود. پخش مالچ کلش در اول خردادماه در مقایسه با اول شهریورماه بیشترین تأثیر را در افزایش تعداد گل، عملکرد گل و عملکرد کلاله خشک زعفران (به­ترتیب تا 7/41 ، 9/16و 50 درصد) داشت. همچنین تمامی شاخص­های موردمطالعه بنه­های دختری زعفران به‌طور معنی­داری تحت تأثیر زمان پخش مالچ کلش، سطوح کلش و نیز اثرات متقابل آن­ها در سطح یک درصد قرار گرفت. در بین تیمارهای موردبررسی، بیشترین افزایش در عملکرد بنه­های بیش از 8 گرم (7/687گرم) و عملکرد کل بنه­های دختری زعفران(4/1382گرم ) در نتیجه کاربرد 8 تن مالچ کلش در خردادماه مشاهده شدکه نسبت به تیمار مصرف 2 تن در هکتار بقایا در همان تاریخ به­ترتیب افزایش2/62 و 7/77درصدی را نشان می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of amount and time of wheat straw application as mulch on flowering and morphological characteristics of replacement corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohhamad Reza Hrivandi 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Surur Khorramdel 3
  • A. A. Moayedi 4
1 Ph.D. student, Department of Agrotecnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
4 Director of the Center for Research and Education Agriculture and Natural Resources Khorasan Razavi, respectively
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of spreading time and application rates of wheat straw as mulch on Saffron corm and flower yield, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Gonabad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station, Center for Research and Agricultural Education and Natural Resources of Khorasan Razavi in years 2015-16. The treatments were all combination of wheat straw in four levels (2, 4, 6 and 8 t.ha-1) and time of wheat straw spreading in three dates (22 June, 6 July and 23August). The results showed that the rate and time of straw application and their interaction had significant effect on all studied characteristics of saffron flower. Spreading of wheat straw at 22 June compared to 6 July and 23August had the highest significant effect on increasing flower number, fresh flower yield, dry stigma and style yield (up to 41.7, 16.9 and 50 percent, respectively). In addition, all studied criteria of saffron replacement corms were significantly affected by the time of wheat straw spreading, different levels of wheat straw application and their interactions. Among the studied treatments, the highest corm yield in terms of more than 8g (595.65 g) and total saffron replacement corms yield were obtained in applying 8 t.ha-1 wheat straw at 22 June (1163 g). Compared to the treatment of 2 tons per hectare, the remnants on the same date show an increase of 112.2 and 12.9 percent, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry stigma
  • Number of flower
  • Replacement corm
  • style
  • Wheat mulch

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