بررسی برخی روش های مدیریت تغذیه و آبیاری به منظور سازگاری و توسعه کشت زعفران در مناطق خشک

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور استان یزد

10.22048/jsat.2018.106340.1272

چکیده

به منظور بهبود عملکرد زعفران و تغییر الگوی کاشت در مناطق خشک، آزمایشی بصورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار طی سال‌های زراعی 1395-1392 در یک مزرعه تحقیقاتی واقع در روستای چرخاب از توابع استان یزد به اجرا درآمد. سطوح فاکتور اصلی شامل سه سطح آبیاری (آبیاری تا 100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی) به عنوان کرت‌های اصلی و 7 تیمار مختلف مدیریت کودی شامل شاهد، 10 تن در هکتار کود دامی یا ورمی‌کمپوست به صورت توزیع روی سطح خاک، 5 و 10 تن در هکتار ورمی‌کمپوست به صورت ردیفی در زیر ردیف‌های کاشت، 10 لیتر در هکتار هیومستر سفرون در یک نوبت و در دو نوبت پس از گلدهی، به عنوان کرت‌های فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که کاهش آبیاری از 75% به 50% نیاز آبی موجب کاهش معنی‌دار وزن خشک برگ، وزن بزرگترین بنه، وزن کل بنه و تعداد بنه مؤثر در بوته شد. اختلاف عملکرد بین تیمارهای آبیاری هر ساله بیشتر شد. به­طوریکه در سال اول آزمایش، تیمارها از نظر تعداد گل اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشتند اما در سال سوم آزمایش تعداد گل در تیمار 100% نیاز آبی با میانگین 76/100 گل در هر کرت بصورت معنی‌داری بیش از دو تیمار دیگر بود. همچنین با کاهش آبیاری از 100% به 75% نیاز آبی، تعداد کل بنه بیش‌از 40% کاهش یافت، اما وزن کل بنه کمتر از 30% کاهش یافت. بین تیمارهای مدیریت کودی، مصرف ورمی‌کمپوست به مقدار 10 تن در هکتار به­صورت ردیفی در زیر ردیف‌های کاشت (10RV) و مصرف کود هیومستر سفرون به مقدار 10 لیتر در هکتار طی دو نوبت‌ در طول فصل رشد (CH) به صورت معنی‌داری مطلوبتر بود. بطوریکه بیشترین تعداد گل در سال‌های دوم و سوم آزمایش در تیمار 10RV به ترتیب 78/71 و 22/98 عدد در هر کرت بدست آمد اما سود خالص حاصل از تیمار CH حدود 5/13 برابر بیش از بهترین تیمار این آزمایش (10RV) بود. درمجموع، روند تغییرات صفات طی سه سال آزمایش نشان داد که مزیت مصرف هیومستر سفرون نسبت به سایر تیمارها بیشتر است. لکن توصیه می‌شود در تحقیقات آتی مقادیر بیشتر این کود مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study the effects of some fertilizer and irrigation managements in adaptation and development of saffron cultivation in arid regions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Gholami 1
  • Mohammad Kafi 2
  • Hamid reza Khazaie 2
  • Hossein Abarghouei 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy - Crop Physiology Field, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Associate Professor, Payam-e-Nour University. Daneshjoo BLV. Yazd.
چکیده [English]

In order to improve saffron yield and modify crop pattern in arid areas, a split plot experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replication in a research field in Charkhab village of Yazd province during 2013-2016. Main plots included; irrigation in three levels (100%, 75% and 50% of ETc), and sub plots were seven fertilizer management including; control (zero fertilization), applying 10 t/ha cow manure(10M), 10 t/ha vermicompost by spreading(10V), 10 t/ha vermicompost buried under planting corm rows (10RV), 5 t/ha vermicompost buried under planting corm rows(5RV), spraying 10 L/ha Humaster Saffron fertilizer for 1 (SH) or 2 (CH) times after flowering. Results showed that as water stress decreased from 75% to 50% ET, flower yield and its relative traits, bud number per plant, leaf dry weight, highest corm weight, total corm weight and effective corm weight decreased significantly in each treatment. Among fertilizer managements, 10M treatment increased growth characteristics of saffron plants in the first year while 10RV and CH treatments showed better performance in the second and third years. Generally, results showed that using Humaster-Saffron fertilizer showed advantages in comparison with other treatments due to its potassium and humic acid content and possibility of its easy application in every year and along with irrigation water.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corm weight
  • Cow manure
  • Humaster-Saffron
  • Vermincompost

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